Chapter 5 VOCAB Flashcards Preview

Biology 110 Midterm Review > Chapter 5 VOCAB > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 VOCAB Deck (40)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

integral membrane proteins

A

Proteins that are at least partially embedded in the plasma membrane.

2
Q

ligand

A

Any molecule that binds to a receptor site of another (usually larger) molecule.

3
Q

G protein–linked receptors

A

A class of receptors that change configuration upon ligand binding such that a G protein binding site is exposed on the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, initiating a signal transduction pathway.

4
Q

hypertonic

A

Having a greater solute concentration. Said of one solution compared to another.

5
Q

G protein

A

membrane protein involved in signal transduction; characterized by binding GDP or GTP.

6
Q

secondary active transport

A

A form of active transport that does not use ATP as an energy source; rather, transport is coupled to ion diffusion down a concentration gradient established by primary active transport.

7
Q

peripheral membrane proteins

A

Proteins associated with but not embedded within the plasma membrane.

8
Q

receptor-mediated endocytosis

A

Endocytosis initiated by macromolecular binding to a specific membrane receptor.

9
Q

passive transport

A

Diffusion across a membrane; may or may not require a channel or carrier protein.

10
Q

cAMP (cyclic AMP)

A

A compound formed from ATP that acts as a second messenger.

11
Q

aquaporin

A

A transport protein in plant and animal cell membranes through which water passes in osmosis.

12
Q

transmembrane protein

A

An integral membrane protein that spans the phospholipid bilayer.

13
Q

paracrine

A

Pertaining to a chemical signal, such as a hormone, that acts locally, near the site of its secretion.

14
Q

selective permeability

A

Allowing certain substances to pass through while other substances are excluded; a characteristic of membranes.

15
Q

glycolipid

A

A lipid to which sugars are attached.

16
Q

simple diffusion

A

Diffusion that doesn’t involve a direct input of energy or assistance by carrier proteins

17
Q

sodium–potassium pump (Na+–K+ pump)

A

Antiporter responsible for primary active transport; it pumps sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell, both against their concentration gradients

18
Q

gated channel

A

A membrane protein that changes its three-dimensional shape, and therefore its ion conductance, in response to a stimulus. When open, it allows specific ions to move across the membrane.

19
Q

channel protein

A

An integral membrane protein that forms an aqueous passageway across the membrane in which it is inserted and through which specific solutes may pass.

20
Q

carrier protein

A

In facilitated diffusion, a membrane protein that binds a specific molecule and transports it through the membrane.

21
Q

endocytosis

A

A process by which liquids or solid particles are taken up by a cell through invagination of the plasma membrane.

22
Q

autocrine

A

A chemical signal that binds to and affects the cell that makes it.

23
Q

glycoprotein

A

A protein to which sugars are attached.

24
Q

phagocytosis

A

Endocytosis by a cell of another cell or large particle.

25
Q

turgor pressure

A

The hydrostatic pressure of an enclosed solution in excess of the surrounding atmospheric pressure.

26
Q

facilitated diffusion

A

Passive movement through a membrane involving a specific carrier protein; does not proceed against a concentration gradient.

27
Q

receptor protein

A

A protein that can bind to a specific molecule, or detect a specific stimulus, within the cell or in the cell’s external environment.

28
Q

osmosis

A

Movement of water across a differentially permeable membrane, from one region to another region where the water potential is more negative.

29
Q

protein kinase

A

An enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group from ATP to a target protein.

30
Q

hypotonic

A

Having a lesser solute concentration. Said of one solution compared to another.

31
Q

ion channel

A

An integral membrane protein that allows ions to diffuse across the membrane in which it is embedded.

32
Q

active transport

A

The energy-dependent transport of a substance across a biological membrane against a concentration gradient—that is, from a region of low concentration (of that substance) to one of high concentration.

33
Q

signal transduction pathway

A

The series of biochemical steps whereby a stimulus to a cell (such as a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor) is translated into a response of the cell.

34
Q

pinocytosis

A

Endocytosis by a cell of liquid containing dissolved substances.

35
Q

exocytosis

A

A process by which a vesicle within a cell fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the outside.

36
Q

allosteric regulation

A

Regulation of the activity of a protein (usually an enzyme) by the binding of an effector molecule to a site other than the active site.

37
Q

primary active transport

A

Active transport in which ATP is hydrolyzed, yielding the energy required to transport an ion or molecule against its concentration gradient

38
Q

hormone

A

A chemical signal produced in minute amounts at one site in a multicellular organism and transported to another site where it acts on target cells.

39
Q

diffusion

A

Random movement of molecules or other particles, resulting in even distribution of the particles when no barriers are present.

40
Q

fluid mosaic model

A

A molecular model for the structure of biological membranes consisting of a fluid phospholipid bilayer in which suspended proteins are free to move in the plane of the bilayer.