basking in reflected glory
The tendency to enhance one’s image by publicly announcing one’s association with those who are successful
Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups to which one belongs
downward social comparison
The defensive tendency to compare oneself with someone whose troubles are more serious than one’s own
The tendency to use similar causal attributions for a wide variety of events in one’s life.
Ascribing the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
Usually conscious efforts to influence the way others think of one
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.
Efforts to make oneself likable to others.
Ascribing the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings rather than to external events.
One’s conceptions about the kind of person one might become in the future.
An image presented to others in social interactions
A set of people who are used as a gauge in making social comparisons
Inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior.
A collection of beliefs about one’s basic nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
Seemingly intentional acts that thwart a person’s self–interest
The mismatching of self–perceptions
One’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
The tendency to maintain positive views of oneself
One–s overall assessment of one–s worth as a person; the evaluative component of the self–concept
The tendency to sabotage one’s performance to provide an excuse for possible failure
The degree to which people attend to and control the impressions they make on others
Directing and controlling one’s behavior.
The tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors
People prefer to receive feedback from others that is consistent with their own self–views
Social comparison theory
The idea that people need to compare themselves with others in order to gain insight into their own behavior.
Advertisers of personal care products are tapping into the ________ motive.
b. self-improvement c. self-assessment d. self-verification
Social context affects self-concept in all of the following ways except:
a. being less self-conscious in some situations.
b. how people think and feel about others. c. a situation can indirectly affect self-concept. d. only aspects of self that are central to who you are will be affected.
Which of the following statements is not true about the self-concept?
A. It is composed of one dominant belief about the self.
B. It is composed of many self-beliefs
C. It is relatively stable over time
D. It influences present as well as future behavior.
Mismatches between one's actual and ought selves result in lower self-esteem and A. Dejection-related feelings B. Agitation-related feelings C. Feelings of self-enhancement D. No particular feelings
A person reared in a collectivist culture is likely to have a(n) \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ self-view, whereas a person reared in an individualistic culture is likely to have a(n) \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ self-view A. Self-discrepant/ self-consistent B. Self-consistent/ self-discrepant C. Independent/ interdependent D. Interdependent/ independent
Self concept confusion individuals with low self-esteem don’t know themselves well enough to strongly endorse many person attributes on self-esteem tests.
Efficacy beliefs vary according to the person’s skills
What are the three categories of self-defeating behavior?
Deliberate self-destruction, Trade-offs, counterproductive strategies
People vary in their awareness of how they are perceived by others (self-monitoring_
Low self-esteem is associated with A. Happiness B. High trust of others C. Self-concept confusion D. Recovering after failure experiences
People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting a(n) ________ explanatory style.
b. coherent c. pessimistic d. optimistic
The self-concept that you have in mind at a given time is referred to as a ________ self-concept.
b. working c. public d. possible
Your friend Tyra has decided to postpone starting business school for two years in order to help her family operate their small hardware store during her dad’s illness. She is exhibiting a characteristic behavior of persons from a(n) ________ culture.
b. collectivistic c. behavioristic d. humanistic
Which of the following is NOT a coping technique used to deal with self-discrepancies?
a. Consuming alcohol
b. Being more optimistic about your actual abilities c. Avoiding situations that increase self-awareness d. Changing behaviors to be more in line with personal standards
Which of the following is consistent with the self-serving bias?
a. The tendency to attribute one
s successes to situational factors
b. The tendency to attribute one's successes to the ease of the task c. The tendency to attribute one's failures to situational factors d. The tendency to attribute one's failures to dispositional factors
4 parenting styles in Baumrind’s parental classification system-
Authortarian, Authortative, Neglectful, and Permissive
Coping with self-discrepencies
change behavior, blunt self awareness
Trait self esteem
confidence regarding abilities and characteristics
State self esteem
dynamic and changeable
self esteem is actually a subjective measure of one’s interpersonal popularity and success