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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (37)
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1
Q

Sensation is to :

A

Bottom-up processing

2
Q

Perception is to :

A

Top-down processing

3
Q

This process by which we organize and interpret sensory information is called:

A

Perception

4
Q

Subliminal stimuli are

A

Below our absolute threshold for conscious awareness.

5
Q

Another term for difference threshold is the:

A

just noticeable difference

6
Q

Weber’s law states that for a difference to be perceived, two stimuli must differ by:

A

A constant minimum percentage.

7
Q

Sensory adaptation helps us focus on

A

important changes in the environment

8
Q

Our perceptual set influences what we perceive. This mental tendency reflects our:

A

Experiences, assumptions and expectations.

9
Q

The characteristic of light that determines the color we experience, such as blue or green is

A

wavelength

10
Q

The blind spot in your retina is located where

A

the optic nerve leaves the eye.

11
Q

Cones are the eyes receptor cells hat are especially sensitive to __________ lights, and are responsible for our __________ Vision.

A

Bright; color

12
Q

The amplitude of a light wave is located where

A

the optic nerve leaves the eye.

13
Q

two theories together account for color vision. The young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory shows that the eye contains __________.

A

Three types of color receptors.

14
Q

The opponent- process theory accounts for the nervous system’s having __________.

A

Opponent-process cells.

15
Q

what mental process allows you to perceive a lemon as yellow?

A

your Brain constructs this perception of color in 2 stages.

16
Q

The cells in the visual cortex that respond to certain lines, edges and angles are :

A

Feature detectors

17
Q

The brain;s ability to process many aspects of an object or a problem simultaneously is called ___________.

A

parallel processing.

18
Q

Our tendencies to fill in the gaps and to perceive a pattern as continuous are two different examples of the organizing principle called:

A

Grouping

19
Q

In listening to a concert you attend to the solo instrument and perceive the orchestra as accompaniment, this illustrates the organizing principle of:

A

Figure-ground

20
Q

The visual cliff experiments suggest that

A

crawling human infants and very young animals perceive depth.

21
Q

Depth perception underlines our ability to :

A

Judge Distances

22
Q

Two examples of ___________ depth cues are interposition and lineas prespective.

A

Monocular

23
Q

Perceiving a tomato as consistently red, despite lighting shifts, is an example of:

A

Perceptual Constancy

24
Q

After surgery to restore vision, patients who had been blind from birth had difficulty:

A

Recognizing objects by sight.

25
Q

In experiments, people have worn glasses that turned their visual fields upside down.After a period of adjustment, they learned to function quite well. This ability is called :

A

Perceptual adaptation.

26
Q

The snail-shaped tube in the inner ear, where sound waves are converted into neural activity is called the :

A

Cochlea.

27
Q

What are the basic steps in transforming sound waves into perceived sound?

A

The outer ear collects sound waves, which are translated into mechanical waves by the middle ear and turned into fluid waves in the inner ear.

28
Q

What theory explains how we hear high-pitched sounds?

A

Place Theory

29
Q

What theory explains how we hear low-pitched sounds?

A

Frequency theory

30
Q

The gate-control theory of pain proposes that

A

Small spinal cord nerve fibers conduct most pain signals, bur large fiber activity can close access to those pain signals.

31
Q

How does the biopsychosocial approach explain our experience of pain?

A

Pain is influenced by biological factors, psychological factors, and social cultural factors.

32
Q

we have specialized nerve receptors for detecting which five tastes? how did this ability aid our ancestors?

A

we have specialized receptors for detecting sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami tastes.

33
Q

What is our sense of body position and movement?

A

Kinesthesia

34
Q

What specifically monitors our heads movement, with sensors in the inner ear?

A

Vestibular sense

35
Q

Why do you feel a little dizzy immediately after a roller coaster ride?

A

Your vestibular sense regulates balance and body positioning through kinesthetic receptors triggered by fluid in your inner ear.

36
Q

A food’s aroma can greatly enhance its taste. This is an example of:

A

Sensory interaction.

37
Q

Which of the following ESP phenomena is supported by solid, replicable scientific evidence?

A

Not telepathy, precognition, nor clairvoyance