Chapter 6 - Affective Influences on Attitudes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Affective Influences on Attitudes Deck (33):

Mere Exposure Study (Zaoinic), 0, 5, 10, 25 times

For foreign words, chinese ideographs and faces as frequency of exposure ^, more +ve evaluations


Study: Confederates attended a class 0, 5, 10, 15 times

Students rated confederates who attended more as more liked


Mere exposure effect if original attitude was -ve

^ dislike


Mere exposure strongest when (4)

1. Stimuli are complex
2. Stimuli presented for limited # of times in short duration
3. Presentation and evaluation in same context
4. Stimulus presentation includes repeated and non-repeated stimuli


Mere Exposure Two-Factor Model:

1. Habituation - perceive new things as threatening, repeated exposure reduces -ve affect
2. Boredom - over time people become bored w/ a stimulus, so too much exposure leads to -ve affect


Bornstein's Modified Two-Factor Model:
1. Criticism of two-factor model addressed
2. How it works

1. Habituation can occur at conscious and nonconscious level
2. At nonconscious level, perceptual fluency (less cognitive effort when seeing familiar stimuli) elicits +ve affect


Emotional Learning

exposure to attitude object accompanied by events have emotional consequences


Exposure (affective) Conditioning

Repeated presentation of an attitude object paired w/ an affective sensation (like classical conditioning except US evokes affective rather than behavioural response)


Exposure Conditioning Study: Political statements paired w/ free lunch or foul odours

When paired w/ free lunch, rated stimuli more +vely, when paired w/ foul odour more -vely


Implicit Misattribution Model

response elicited by US unconsciously misattributed to CS which influences the individual's attitude toward the CS


Features of exposure conditioning (3)

1. Attitudes formed are resistant to change from extinction procedures
2. More dependent on absolute # of presentations of CS + US than proportion of CS + US vs. just US
3. Not dependent on conscious link


Behaviour (operant) Conditioning

Emotional reinforcement for a specific behaviour (pairs emotion w/ behaviour)


Insko & Cialdini Study: Called students for paid TV survey responding good or nothing after pro or anti-paid responses

Ps indicated more +ve attitudes after +ve responses being reinforced than after -ve responses had been reinforced


Problem w/ Behaviour Conditioning

Can lead to demand characteristics


Over-justification Effect

Rewards decrease inherent, intrinsic attractiveness of task
Can also ^ ambivalence b/c excessive reinforcement makes people wonder if behaviour is legitimate


Observational (vicarious) Conditioning

See/Experience/Empathize w/ emotional responses of another who has performed a particular behaviour


Observational conditioning study: Ps responses to neutral sound tone or novel foods

After seeing another person show a painful/disgust reaction to it Ps responded emotionally


Mood can be used as (3)

information, a goal, a resource


Mood-Congruence Effect

tendency for people to express attitudes that match their (ex. weather -> mood as information)


Free gift at mall and then survey study (Mood)

Rated objects more +vely after receiving a free gift


Counteracting 'mood as information'

Ratings of life satisfaction matched the weather but if asked about weather first the effect went away


Mood as a goal

Good mood: Want to maintain mood and do not want to hear opposing opinions
Bad mood: expect counter-attitudinal info


Moderators of mood congruence (2)

1. Circumstances toat enable people to select info to fit mood (via perception, encoding, recall etc.)
2. Judgments constructed on the spot rather than retrieved from memory b/c cannot recall previous attitudes


ELM and Mood

Motivation high and ability is low: Positive mood as a simple cue (mood as info)
Motivation and ability high: positive mood biases processing of message content (mood as a goal)


ELM Study Freebie (pen or coffee) x Mood (funny or control) DV rating of pen ad

Low motivation (coffee): Positive mood ^ ratings of ad via direct impact (mood as info)
High motivation (pen): Positive mood ^ ratings of ad and moderated % of positive thoughts (attitude as goal)


Hedonic Contingency Model

Message recipients in a good mood are likely to devote substantive attention to persuasive appeals that help them maintain their +ve affect (mood as goal)


Good mood vs Bad mood in Hedonic Contingency model (2)

1. Devote more attention / scrutiny to uplifting appeals
2. Devote less attention and scrutiny to depressing persuasive appeals


Mood-Congruent Expectancies Approach

There is a cognitive mechanism that influences message processing in +ve and -ve moods; where enhanced processing occurs if message disconfirms mood-congruent expectations


Mood as a resource

Positive mood gives people energy to be open-minded about info that contradicts their view (caffeine dangers when in positive mood)


Mood vs. Emotion

Mood - global, generalized, enduring, not direct against a particular target
Emotion - specific, short-lived, clear target (less malleable)


^ certainty vs ^ uncertainty moods

Certainty: happiness, disgust, anger
Uncertainty: surprise, worry fear
Uncertainty causes more processing of persuasive info
Certainty of less processing and more agreement w/ peripheral cues


Integral Emotion

Emotion induced by the attitude or message on it (ex. fear messaging)


Emotions (disgust and sadness) and monetary value of products study

Disgust: want to avoid acquiring anything new
Sadness: desire to change
Results: disgust lower Ps choice prices and sadness ^ Ps choice prices