Chapter 9 - The Internal World Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - The Internal World Deck (23):
1

Reducing IAT / implicit measure deception (2)

1. IAT done in private setting
2. Have individuals form implementation intentions on how to respond to trials

2

Defensive Self-Esteem, how it is established and what it leads to

1. +ve self-esteem on explicit measures and -ve on implicit measures
2. In-group favouritism and stronger attitudes

3

How to change implicit biases (3)

1. increase contact
2. instructions about individuating outgroup members
3. imagining counter-stereotypic outgroup members
(Ex. White students living in interracial dorms)

4

Cuddy Power Pose Study (4 sets of results)

High power poses led to
1. More gambling due to higher risk tolerance
2. Being more hireable during mock interview due to confidence
3. Higher testosterone
4. Lower cortisol (stress)

5

Facial Feedback Hypothesis study (cartoons w/ pen in mouth via teeth or lips)

Ps in teeth condition were more amused by cartoons than those in lip condition

6

Motor actions + attitudes studies:
1. Nodding or shaking head wile listening to editorial on headphones
2. Lifting palms up (flexion) or pressing palms down (extension) while rating Chinese ideographs
3. Left-handed vs. right-handed 'good' animals)
4. Chair lean + democrat or republican
5. Ambivalence movement

1. Nodding lead to more agreement to editorial message
2. Flexion led to more positive attitudes toward Chinese ideographs
3. Left-handed Ps drew good animal in left box and vice versa
4. More agreement with democratic statements while leaning left and vice versa
5. More side-to-side motion on Wii board = greater ambivalence (bi-directional

7

Visceral Fit Hypothesis

Individuals perceive experiences and outcomes integrated w/ their current visceral state as more likely to occur (ex. global warming when it's warm outside)

8

ELM and Bodily Actions

When motivation is low: actions act as a cue to affect attitude (ex. like car better w/ pen b/w teeth
When motivation is high: action as a factor in issue-relevant thinking (ex. strong arguments more impactful when good mood-related movements ex. pen in between teeth)

9

Nodding or shaking on confidence Study

Nodding made Ps more confident in accepting a strong argument and rejecting a weak one
Shaking head lead to no sig difference b/w strong and weak arguments -> and increased down

10

Reclining vs. standing study

Reclining = deep in thought, led to persuasion difference in strong and weak arguments

11

Alcohol Myopia Perspective

Individuals under the influence of alcohol have a reduced capacity to process info and tend to react primarily to salient cues in their environment and exaggerate perceptions of their own ability (inflated sense of self for important attributes when drunk)

12

Attitudes toward drinking and driving (lab and field study)

Lab study: Drunk Ps reported less disagreement w/ continegent qs but same as sober Ps for non-contingent qs
Field study: late Ps reported less disagreement w/ contingent qs but same as early Ps for non-contingent cues

13

Effects of Caffeine study

Caffeine ^ cognitive processes leading Ps to show greater attitude change after strong vs. weak arguments on euthanasia (vs. no difference for placebo group)

14

Social Cognitive Neuroscience

S: studying the social behaviour of motivated individuals
C: examining the cognitive mechanisms that give rise to behavioural processes
N: investigating the neurological systems that cause these processes

15

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

strong magnet to measure changes in blood oxygenation levels within diff areas of brain

16

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

detects levels of radioactive decay through an injection of a small amount of radioactive isotopes

17

Electroencephalography (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG

allows for temporal resolution, measuring neuron communication over time

18

Amygdala
1. Definition
2. Structure results on conservatism vs. liberalism
3. fMRI and prejudice

1. In medial temporal lobe involved in assessing emotional sig of stimuli relevant to one's goal/situation
2. Conservative: ^ size of amygdala; Liberal: ^ gray matter in anterior cingulate cortex (empathy and DMing)
3. Amygdala associated w/ scores on implicit but not explicit measures of prejudice w/ unfamiliar Black faces

19

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)
1. Defintion
2. Ratings of Amivalence region

1. Planning complex decisions and behaviours as well as processing emotions -> more activation for evaluative vs. non-evaluative judgments
2. Ventrolateral PFC

20

Anterior Cingulate Cortex

commitment to behaviour action associated w/ greater activation

21

Event-Related Potential (ERP)
1. Used for
2. Findings

1. Understand time course in attitude judgmenets
2. Right side brain activation: -vely rated objects, left-side: +vely; ambivalence if both

22

Behaviour-induced attitude change/consistency in those with Alzheimer's
1. Object naming and attitudes
2. Post-decisional spread

1. Retained high insight into attitudes and less attitude change for disliked objects (negativity effect = more attention/influence)
2. Occurs even w/ those w/ Amnesia suggesting it is an implicit process

23

Life-stage hypothesis
1. Definition
2. Why it occurs

1. curvilinear relation (U) between age and susceptibility to attitude change w/ greater among young and old
2. ^ importance of social issues / knowledge in middle age and importance of high status/prestige/power attitudes