Chapter 10 - The External World Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - The External World Deck (29):

Two types of defenses against persuasive messages

Supportive defenses - providing people w/ info supporting the belief that is about to be attacked
Refutational defenses - providing people w/ arguments against the beliefs and rebuttals against these arguments (better b/c allows counter-argument formation, vaccination inoculation example)


Meta-Cognitive Model

Assumes people form beliefs about the validity of their own thoughts and thus may not see their resistance of a prior message as being legitimate or correct (ex. if they feel they were influenced by an illegitimate source or weak argument) leading to argument uncertainty


Meta-Cognitive Model Application:
1. Certainty in thoughts
2. Uncertainty in thoughts

1. Resistance to future persuasion
2. Susceptibility to future persuasion


Irrelevant messaging study: Irrelevant car commercial (more x less info) then rate department store ad

Ps thought they had received more info and had more favourable attitudes when the first message contained little info


Prior low/high credibility before moderately credible source

Prior low: ^ perceived credibility of moderate source
Prior high: decreased perceived credibility of moderate source



process by which people become immersed into narrative world, losing access to some real-world knowledge making them less able to counter-argue persuasive arguments in story


Conditions for ^ transportation (2)

(1) personality and (2) narrative promote lower self-consciousness; first-person, in-group


Balance Theory (Heider)

People seek harmony among their thoughts about an attitude object; how people manage inconsistency b/w attitude and thoughts about another's


Relationships of Balance Theory (3)

Triangle with P, OP, AO
1. The individual's own attitude toward an object
2. Another person's attitude toward an object
3. The individual's own attitude toward the other person


Attraction Effects

We prefer situations where we like another person vs dislike them regardless of attitudes toward the object


Agreement Effects

We like situations where we agree with another person (share same attitude) better than disagreeing w/ that person regardless of attitudes toward that person (affected by time and motivation)


Social relationships and felt ambivalence study: Ps attitudes and Parents' attitudes toward AOs

Results: Greater participant-parent differential predicted feelings of felt ambivalence


Vicarious Dissonance, Sakai Study: Boring task w/ partner telling a lie that it was interesting

When P had to come with partner, P had more positive attitude toward task


Feeling powerful before and after receiving a message

BEFORE: validates existing attitude, reducing attention to appeal (low power before, more persuaded by strong v. weak arguments)
AFTER: validates the thoughts they generated during appeal (high power after, more persuaded by strong v. weak arguments)


Personalized Post-it Notes

Lead to reciprocity (completion of survey) vs. note on survey itself or blank post-it


Vicarious dissonance, tuition fee ^: Listen to other P object to increase and then reminded of choice (or not) before giving a speech supporting it

If Ps identified with their college (in-group*) were more persuaded when their colleague gave the speech after being reminded of their choice


Group Polarization Effect

individuals' attitudes become more extreme than the group's average view after group discussion


Why does group polarization occur? (2)

1. Group members give each other new reasons to hold attitude
2. Want to make self look more committed than avg group's position


Peers or Parents and fictitious sexual passage rating

Rated passage higher if thought about peers


Normative Influence and Informational Influence

1. Normative influence and a desire to be liked
2. Informational influence and a desire to be accurate


Two types of norms

Descriptive Norms - describe actions of others (what people actually do); stronger connection to accuracy goals
Injunctive Norms - prescribe or proscribe actions (what people should do); stronger connection to goals related to interpersonal harmony


Norms studies
1. Canoeing through trash river
2. Petrified Wood signs
3. Completion of effortful control task
4. Model (litters or walks by) x environment (dirty or clean)

1. B/c descriptive norm led to more littering
2. injunctive norms led to less theft
3. decreased injunctive (goal conflict) but not descriptive (accuracy) norms
4. Most littering in dirty environment where someone litters and least in clean environment where someone litters


Broken Windows Theory

Signs of disorder induce further disorder and petty crime (littering tag in graffiti environment, stealing money in dirty area)


Minority Influence on Asch's Line Judging Study

When only 2 of 6 Ps were confederates, Ps accuracy still dropped to 92%


focus group review of oral comprehensive exam: agreement (minority or majority) x Ps motivated (yes or no) x argument quality (strong or weak)

When motivation was low: Ps more persuaded by majority (cue)
When motivation was moderate: presence of minority caused Ps to base attitude on argument strength
When motivation was high: Ps influenced by strength of argument regardless of position


Collectivist Cultures

foster a view of the self that emphasizes interdependence with others
- More conformity in Asch's line-judging paradigm, stronger influence of social consensus information


Individualistic Cultures

foster a view of the self that emphasizes independence from others


Matching cultural orientation of message to person

1. IC more persuaded by ads of independent and CC of interdependence
2. NA prefer messages w/ less info EA w/ more
3. NA weigh one side of message more highly when conflicting info but EA will attempt to use both sides


Cultural dissonance and cultural norms

1. Help to dictate when two cognitions might be viewed as consistent or inconsistent and how they deal w/ dissonance
2. Some cultural traditions might lead people to trivialize behavioural and attitudinal inconsistencies that do arise, while others seek to harmonize the inconsistencies through change (CC cultures show less decisional spread after choosing an item and unaffected by personality feedback