Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Drug Interactions Deck (17):
What are the three possible outcomes when drugs interact?
(1) one drug may intensify the effects of the other,
(2) one drug may reduce the effects of the other, or
(3) the combination may produce a new response not seen with either drug alone.
Propranolol, a drug for cardiovascular disorders, can act in the lung to block the effects of
What are the four basic mechanisms that drugs can interact?
(1) direct chemical or physical interaction
, (2) pharmacokinetic interaction,
(3) pharmacodynamic interaction, and
(4) combined toxicity.
What are the two principal mechanisms by which one drug can alter the distribution of another?
(1) competition for protein binding (2) alteration of extracellular pH.
How many isoenzymes in the P450 group are responsible for metabolism of drug? What are their names?
Five - CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4
Inducing agents ____ the rate of drug metabolism
Interactions that occur at the same receptor are almost always _______
The interaction between calcium-containing foods and tetracycline antibiotics is a classic example of food
reducing drug absorption which will reduce antibacterial effects.
High fiber foods can reduce absorption of what drug?
What will double the absorption of saquinavir(invirase)
Food. Be sure the patient takes this medicine with food.
Grapefruit juice can _____ the metabolism of certain drugs, thereby ____ their blood levels.
inhibit ; raising
Specifically, grapefruit juice inhibits _______
What's in grapefruit juice that can inhibit CYP3A4?
bergapten and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin—are furanocoumarins.
The other two—naringin and naringenin—are flavenoids.
If an MAO inhibitor is combined with foods rich in tyramine(cheese, yeast extracts, chianti wine) what is the consequence?
Blood pressure can rise to life-threatening levels.
foods rich in vitamin K (eg, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage) can reduce the effects of
warfarin, an anticoagulan -- It inhibits vitamin K
How does Vitamin K foods inhibit warfarin?
warfarin acts by inhibiting vitamin K–dependent clotting factors. Accordingly, when vitamin K is more abundant, warfarin is less able to inhibit the clotting factors, and therapeutic effects decline.