Chapter 6-fluids & Imbalance Flashcards Preview

Medical Surg > Chapter 6-fluids & Imbalance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6-fluids & Imbalance Deck (34):
1

Diffusion

Substance moves from high to low

2

Filtration

Movement of both water and sm molecules move through a semipermeable membrane.

3

Hydrostatic

Force of water

4

Isotonic

Same osmolarity as the blood

5

Importance of water

Cellular metabolism, blood volume, body temp, solute transport.

6

Average adult water loss

2500 mL daily

7

Hypovolemia

Decrease in blood volume
Most common form of dehydration
Hemorrhage

8

Hypovolemia can occur 2 ways

Hemorrhage
Fluid from the intravasvular space moves into the interstitial space

9

Dehydration symptoms

Thirst
Tenting turgor
Rapid weak pulse
Low bp
Elevated temp
Decreased urine (less 30 mL)
Dark urine
Constipation
Weight loss

10

Complications of dehydration

Organ function failure

11

Diagnostic test for dehydration

BUN
Blood urea nitrogen
Specific gravity increases
Elevated hematocrit

12

Nursing diagnosis for dehydration

Risk for deficient fluid volume

13

Nursing diagnosis expected outcome for dehydration

Pt will be adequately hydrated as evidence of stable weight, moist mucous membranes, and elastic skin turgor.

14

As a person ages, water decreases from 60% to 50% of total body weight

Secondary to increase in body fat

Secondary to increase in body fat

15

Fluid excess

Too much fluid in the body

16

Hypervolemia

Excess fluid in the intravasvular shape

17

Conditions that cause hypervolemia

Poorly controlled IV therapy
Excessive arrogant ion of wounds
Excessive ingestion of water

18

Conditions that can result in hypervolemia

Renal failure
Heart failure
Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

19

Prevention of hypervolemia

Monitor IV therapy
Use of an electronic fusion pump
Monitor the amt of fluid used for arrigation

20

Symptoms of hypervolemia

Elevated bp
Bounding pulse
Increased and shallow respiration

21

Diagnostic test for hypervolemia

BUN and hematocrit decrease
Plasma increased
Decrease in specific gravity

22

Therapies for hypervolemia

Diuretic and diet

23

Positioning

Keep head elevated to avoid aspiration
Fowler's position--allows for greater lung expansion
Oxygen if ordered--provides oxygen to organs

24

Drugs used for hypervolemia

Lasix
Furosemide
Excretes sodium and water and potassium

25

Diet therapy for hypervolemia

Mild fluid intake
Sodium restricted diet

26

Data collection for hypervolemia

Edema in back and lower limbs
I&O
Pitting edema over a honey area
Assess lung sounds
Crackles if there is an accumulation of fluid
Weight gain or loss

27

Nursing diagnosis foe hypervolemia

Excess fluid volume related to excessive fluid intake

28

Expected outcome for hypervolemia

Patient return to normal status as evidenced by return to weight that is normal for pt, absence of edema, and clear lung sounds

29

Hypo atresia

Sodium deficit

30

Normal level of serum sodium

135-145

31

Hypokalemia

Calcium deficit

32

Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia

Muscle cramps
Shallow respiration
Weak, irregular pulse
Orthostatic hypotension (postural)
Dysrythmia
Changes in mental status
Lethargy
GI motility decreases

33

Alkalosis

Acid-base imbalance

34

Therapeutic measures foe hypokalemia

IV potassium supplements after pt has voided (kidneys eliminate excess potassium).
Potentially dangerous
Too high causes cardiac arrest
Administered slowly and NEVER by push
RN administers only