Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Katie Deck (46):
what is sensation?
the detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects; it occurs when energy in the body stimulates the receptors in the sense organs.
what is perception?
the process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information
what are sense receptors?
specialized cells that convert physical energy in the environment or the body to electrical energy that can be transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain
what is the doctrine of specific nerve energies and who came up with it?
Johannes Muller, and the principle that different sensory modalities exist because signals received by the sense organs stimulate different nerve pathways leading to different areas of the brain.
what is synesthesia?
a condition in which stimulation of one sense also evokes another. (sensory cross-over)
what 3 steps allow one to sense something?
1. sensory receptors (scouts)2. sensory nerves in the peripheral nervous system (field officers) transmit what the sensory receptors detected.3. Impulses reach the cells of the brain (command centre)
what is the absolute threshold?
the smallest quantity of physical energy that can be reliably detected by an observer.
what is the difference threshold?
the smallest difference in stimulation that can be reliably detected by an observer when two stimuli are compared; also called just noticeable differences (jnd)
what is the signal-detection theory?
a psychophysical theory that divides the detection fo a sensory signal into a sensory process and a decision process
what is sensory adaptation?
the reduction or disappearance of sensory responsiveness when stimulation is unchanging or repetitious.
In response to signal detection if the stimulus and person's response are both present, what is it?
In response to signal detection if the stimulus is not present but the person's response is, what is it?
a false alarm
In response to signal detection if the stimulus and person's response are not present, what is it?
a correct rejection
In response to signal detection if the stimulus is present but the person's response is not, what is it?
what is sensory deprivation?
the absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation
what is selective attention?
the focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others
what is inattentional blindness?
failure to consciously perceive something you are looking at because you are not attending to it
what is a hue?
the dimension of visual experiences specified by colour names and related to the wavelength of light
what is brightness?
lightness or luminance; the dimension of visual experience related to the amount of light related to the amount of light emitted from or reflected by an object.
what is saturation?
the thing that make your insta photos look nicer. or vividness or purity of colour; the dimension of visual experiences related to the complexity of light waves.
what is the retina?
neural tissue lining the back of the eyeball's interior, which contains the receptors for the brain.
what are rods?
visual receptors that respond to dim light.
what are cones?
visual receptors involved in colour vision
what is the dark adaptation?
a process by which visual receptors become maximally sensitive to dim light
what are ganglion cells?
neurons in the retina of the eye that gather information from receptor cells (by way of intermediate bipolar cells); their axons make up the optic nerve.
what are feature detector cells?
cells in the visual cortex that are sensitive to specific features of the environment
what is the trichromatic theory?
a theory of colour perception that proposes three mechanisms in the visual system, each sensitive to a certain range of wavelength; their interaction is assumed to produce all the different experiences of hue
what is the opponent-process?
a theory of colour perception that assumes that the visual system treats pairs of colours as opposing or antagonistic
What are Gestalt's 4 principles?
1. proximity2. closure3. similarity4.continuity
What are Gestalts principles described as?
Principles that describe the brains organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns.
What is the principle of proximity?
things that are near to each other tend to be grouped together
What is the principle of closure?
the brain tends to fill in gaps in order to perceive complete forms
What is the principle of similarity?
things that are alike in some way tend to be perceived as belonging to each other
What is the principle of continuity?
lines and patterns tend to be perceived as continuing in time or space
what are binocular cues?
visual cues to depth or distance requiring two eyes
what is convergence?
the turning inward of the eyes, which occurs when one focuses on a nearby object
what is retinal disparity?
the slight difference in lateral separation between two objects as seen by the left eye and the right eye
what are monocular cues?
visual cues to depth or distance that can be used by one eye alone
What is perceptual constancy?
the accurate perception of objects as stable or unchanged despite changes in the sensory patterns they produce.
What are the 5 visual constancies?
1. shape constancy2. location constancy3. size constancy4. brightness constancy5. colour constancy
What are some monocular cues to depth? (7)
1. light and shadow2. interposition3. motion parallax4. relative size5. relative clarity6. texture gradients7. linear perspective
What is the Muller-lyer Illusion?
two lines that look like different lengths even though they are actually the same
what is the gate-control theory of pain?
the theory that the experiences of pain depends in part on whether pain impulses get past a neurological "gate" in the spinal cord and thus reach the brain.
what is phantom pain?
the experience of pain in a missing limb or other body part
what is priming?
a method used to measure unconscious cognitive processes, in which a person is exposed to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects behaviour or performance on another task or in another situation.