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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Other Deck (34):

What are the primary cells of the immune system?

T and B lymphocytes


The thymus is responsible for producing what?

mature T lymphocytes


Lymph nodes are responsible for doing what?

filtering the lymph and trapping antigens; lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells are formed in lymph nodes


What is the pathophysiology of AIDS?

reduction of CD4+ helper T cells, resulting in CD4+ T lymphocytopenia


What are the stages of HIV?

- Stage 1: flu-like illness within 2-4 weeks after infection
- Stage 2: clinical latency; asymptomatic HIV infection or chronic HIV infection; can last a decade or longer
- Stage 3: AIDS; HIV destroys so many cells over time that the body can't fight off infections and disease, resulting in opportunistic illnesses


How is HIV diagnosed?

- CD4 cell count: 500-1200 cells/mm
- testing with HIV-1/HIV-2 antigen/antibody combination immunoassays
- medical evaluation and laboratory evaluation including plasma HIV viral load, blood cell and CD4 count, antiretroviral resistance assay, drug-resistance testing, and testing for STDs


How is AIDS diagnosed?

- CD4 cell count drops below 200 cells/mm or if they develop certain opportunistic illnesses. People with AIDS have a high viral load and are very infectious.
- AIDS-related complex: the presence of acute symptoms secondary to immune system deficiency.


What are red flags associated with AIDS-related treatment?

rash, nausea, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, dizziness, fatigue, and pain


How is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome diagnosed?

- The patient must have both of the major criteria and four or more of the eight symptom criteria:

Major criteria: 1) new onset of persistent or relapsing fatigue; must be present for at least eight months; does not resolve with bed rest and reduces daily activity by at least 50%; 2) exclusion of other chronic conditions

Symptom criteria:
1. profound or prolonged fatigue; post-exertional malaise lasting more than 24 hours
2. a sore throat that is frequent or reoccurring
3. tender lymph nodes
4. muscle pain (myalgia)
5. sleep that is not refreshing
6. headache of a new type, pattern or severity
7. multijoint pain (arthralgias) without swelling or redness
8. significant impairments of short-term memory or concentration


What are the general characteristics of Fibromyalgia Syndrome?

- myalgia
- generalized aching, persistent fatigue (mental and physical)
- sleep disturbances with generalized morning stiffness
- multiple tender points
- additional problems include visual disturbances, spasm, cold intolerance, headaches, irritable bowel or bladder, cognitive problems, restless legs, atypical patterns of numbness and tingling (sensitivity amplification)


What are the criteria for diagnosis Fibromyalgia Syndrome?

two criteria: widespread pain lasting at least 3 months and the presence of 11 positive tender points out a total of 18 (Copenhagen Fibromyalgia Syndrome definition).


What are the three groups of streptococcal infections?

Group A streptococcus (S. pyogenes): pharyngitis, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis (gangrene), cellulitis, myositis

Group B streptococcus (S. agalactiae): neonatal and adult streptococcal B infections

Group C streptococcus (S. pneumoniae): pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, endocarditis


T/F: Manual therapy should be used with caution in patients with hematologic disorders

True; as should some modalities (i.e. mechanical compression)


What are some of the causes of anemia?

a decrease in RBC production: nutritional deficiency (iron, vitamin B, folic acid); cellular maturation defects, decreased bone marrow stimulation (hypothyroidism), bone marrow failure (leukemia, aplasia, neoplasm), and genetic defect


Cancer Staging

Stage 0: carcinoma in situ
Stage 1: the tumor is localized, equal to or less than 2 cm; has not spread to lymph nodes
Stage 2: the tumor is locally advanced; 2 cm to 5 cm with or without lymph node involvement
Stage 3: the tumor is locally more advanced; spread to lymph nodes; cancer is designated stage 2 or 3 depending upon the specific type of cancer
Stage 4: the tumor has metastasized, or spread to other organs throughout the body


What cancers commonly metastasize to bone?

Breast, Lung, Thyroid, Lymphatic, Prostate


What are the contraindications to exercise for cancer patients?

1. day of IV chemotherapy or within 24 hours of treatment
2. severe reaction to radiation therapy
3. acute infection or febrile illness (temp >100˚F)
4. severe nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea within 24-36 hours, dehydration, poor nutrition


Visceral pain from the esophagus can refer pain to the:



Visceral pain from the liver, diaphragm, or pericardium can refer to the:



Visceral pain from the gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, or small intestine can refer to the:

midback and scapular regions


Visceral pain from the colon, appendix, or pelvic viscera can refer to the:

pelvis, low back, or sacrum


Hepatitis A

- transmission is primarily through fecal-oral route; contracted through contaminated food or water, or person-to-person contact (infected food handlers)
- an acute illness; can range in severity from mild to severs
- prevention: good personal hygiene, hand washing, sanitation; immunization


Hepatitis B

- transmission from blood, body fluids, or body tissues, through blood transfusion, oral or sexual contact with a person infected with HBV or contaminated needles
- can range in severity from mild to severe
- prevention: education, use of disposable needles, screening of blood donors; precautions for health care workers; immunization


Hepatitis C

- transmission is the same as for HBV
- can be acute or chronic


Hepatitis D

- dependent upon having Hepatitis B
- prognosis is poor and patients often present with fulminant liver failure


What are the clinical manifestations of liver cirrhosis?

jaundice, peripheral edema, Dupuytren's contracture, palmar erythema, angiomas, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and ascites



Partial or complete obstruction of the common bile duct resulting in inflammation of the gallbladder

Severe RUQ pain radiating to the right scapula. Nausea, vomiting, or low grade fever possible.

Positive Murphy's sign. Palpate near the right subcostal margin as patient takes a deep breath. Pain is elicited.


Red Flags for Malabsorption Syndrome

- iron-deficiency anemia
- easy bruising and bleeding due to lack of vitamin K
- muscle weakness and fatigue due to lack of protein, iron, folic acid, and vitamin B
- bone loss, pain, and predisposition, to develop fractures from lack of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
- neuropathy including tetany, paresthesias, numbness and tingling from lack of calcium, vitamins B and D, magnesium, and potassium
- muscle spasms from electrolyte imbalance and lack of calcium
- peripheral edema


What are the cardiovascular changes associated with pregnancy?

- increased blood volume
- increased venous pressure in the lower extremities
- increased heart rate and cardiac output
- decreased blood pressure d/t venous distensibilty


Pelvic floor disorders result from weakness of the:

pubococcygeal muscles


What is cystocele?

herniation of the bladder into the vagina


What is rectocele?

herniation of the rectum into the vagina


What is uterine prolapse?

herniation of the uterus into the vagina


How is diabetes diagnosed?

Symptoms of diabetes plus casual plasma glucose concentration > 200 mg/dl.

Fasting glucose >126 mg/dL.

2-hour postpartum glucose >200 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test.