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Flashcards in Project Time Management Deck (40):

What are two specific types of network diagrams?

AON (Activity-on-node)
AOA (Activity-on-arrow)


What are some risks of crashing or fast-tracking a project schedule?

Increased cost
Unrealistic alternatives
Communication challenges


What is decomposition?

A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.


What is the purpose of a resource calendar?

To show when, and for how long, resources, such as equipment, people, and materials, are potentially available.


Expert judgement, alternatives analysis, published estimating data, bottom-up estimating, and project management software are tools and techniques for which Project Time Management process?

Estimate Activity Resources


What are the five tools and techniques for the Estimate Activity Duration process?

Expert judgment
Analogous estimating
Parametric estimating
Three-point estimates
Group decision-making techniques
Reserve analysis


What are contingency reserves?

A budget within the cost baseline of performance measurement baseline that is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigating respones are developed.


What are the 6 Project Time Management processes and which Process Groups do they fit in?

Define activities - planning
Sequence activities - planning
Estimate activity resources - planning
Estimate activity durations - planning
Develop schedule - planning
Control schedule - monitoring and controlling


What are the characteristics of the project schedule?

It is calendar based
It has resources assigned
It is signed off as part of the project management plan
It forms the basis for measuring schedule performance


What is meant by the terms "lead" and "lag"?

Lag: the amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.

Lead: The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.


What are 4 types of dependencies or precedence relationships>



Which activities have no slack or float?

Typically, the activities on the critical path have no float or slack; therefore, the project manager needs to watch these activities more closely than other that have float or scheduling flexibility.


What are the 4 inputs for the Define Activities process?

1. Schedule management plan
2. Scope baseline
3. Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational process assets


What are the 3 outputs of the Define Activites process?

1. Activity list
2. Activity attributes
3. Milestone list


What is the formula for the three-point estimate, PERT?

Te = (To + 4Tm + Tp)/6


What is reserve analysis?

An analytical techniques to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds of a project.


What do the Project Time Management processes ensure?

The timely completion of a project.


What are 2 methods for schedule compression?

1. Crashing: Adding resources to critical path activities
2. Fast Tracking: Applying a lead to activities that would typically start only after precedent activities are finished.


What are 3 ways to graphically depict a project schedule?

1. Network diagram
2. Bar chart or Gantt chart
3. Milestone chart


What does a network diagram show, and what does it not show?

It shows the project's schedule activities and the logical relationship among those activities. It might or might now show the duration of each activity.

I t does not show the start and finish dates of the project, nor the resources needed for the activites.


Decomposition, rolling wave planning, and expert judgment are tools and techniques for which process?

Define Activities


The schedule baseline, project schedule, schedule data, project calendars, project management plan updates, and project documents updates are outputs of which Project Time Management process?

Develop Schedule


How is total float calculated?
How is free float calculated?

Total Float

Free Float
ESsuccessor - EFpredecessor


What is meant by the terms "work effort" and "duration"?

Work effort: The total number of labor units required to complete an activity, typically stated in person hours, person days, person weeks, etc.

Duration: The number of work periods that it will take to complete an activity


Activity duration estimates and project documents updates are the outputs for which Project Time Management process?

Estimate Activity Duration


What are the 7 tools and techniques for the Control Schedule process?

1. Performance reviews
2. Project management software
3. Resource optimization technique
4. Modeling techniques
5. Leads and lags
6. Schedule compression
7. Scheduling tool


What are 4 types of dependencies?

1. Mandatory
2. Discretionary
3. External
4. Internal


What is the PMI definition of critical path?

The sequence of activities that represent the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible duration.


What is rolling wave planning?

An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.


What are the typical activities of variance analysis?

*Look at the baseline and the actual differences
*Determine the cause of the differences
*Determine whether corrective action is necessary.


What is resource leveling? Give an example of a resource leveling heuristic.

Resource leveling: A technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with available supply.

Heuristics examples:
1. Work can be leveled only between resources of the same type or same skill level.
2. Critical path activities have priority in leveling over noncritical path activities.


Precedence Diagramming Method

A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.


Precedence Diagramming - Finish-to-Start (FS)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity CANNOT start until a predecessor activity had finished. Most commonly used type of PD.

Example: The awards ceremony (S) CANNOT start until the race(P) has finished.


Precedence Diagramming - Finish-to-Finish (FF)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity CANNOT finish until a predecessor activity has finished.

Example: Writing a document (P) is required to finish before editing the document (S) can finish.


Precedence Diagramming - Start-to-Start (SS)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity CANNOT start until a predecessor activity has finished.

Example: Level concrete(S) CANNOT begin until pour foundation (P) begins.


Precedence Diagramming - Start-to-Finish (SF)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity CANNOT finish until a predecessor activity has started.

Example: The first security guard shift (S) cannot finish until the second security guard shift (P) starts.


Mandatory Dependencies

Legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of work. The project team determines which dependencies are mandatory during the process of sequencing activities.


Discretionary Dependencies

Preferred logic, preferential logic, soft logic. Established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application are or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired.


External Dependencies

The relationship between project activities and non-project activities.

Usually outside the project team's control.


Internal Dependencies

Involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team's control.

Project Management Team determines which dependencies are internal during the sequencing of activities.