Chapter 6 - Reproductive System Concerns Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Reproductive System Concerns Deck (39):
1

Normal Menstrual Patterns

Menses every 28 days
Range from 26-34 days
When menses first starts takes15 months for first 10 cycles then 20 cycles to become regular

2

Amenorrhea

Absence of menstrual flow
By age 14 years if no secondary sexual characteristics should be evaluated
By age 16 years no menses even with secondary characteristics
(most girls have had injury to open hymen, if not then have to go to surgery)

3

Exercise associated amenorrhea-

low body weight/fat greatest risk-low bone density

4

Hypogonadotropic amenorrhea

Problem in central hypothalamic-pituitary axis
Results from hypothalamic suppression
Assessment
Counseling and education
Stress can affect

5

Dysmenorrhea

Pain during or shortly before menstruation

6

Primary dysmenorrhea

Abnormally increased uterine activity
Physiologic alteration
Alleviating discomfort
(too much bleeding)

7

Secondary dysmenorrhea

Acquired menstrual pain
Diagnosis and treatment
(bad cramps)

8

Dysmenorrhea Tx

NSAID start 2-3 days before
BCP
Heat
Exercise
Decreased salt and refined sugar intake
Increased water
Decrease red meat

9

Meds for Dysmenorrhea

BCP prevent ovulation
Decrease amount of mentrual flow

10

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Cyclic symptoms occurring in luteal phase of menstrual cycle
PMS: cluster of physical, psychologic, and behavioral symptoms-30-80% of women experience

11

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD)

Severe variant of PMS
Feel overwhelmed
(affects daily life)

12

PMS

Fluid retention
Behavior or emotional changes
Irritability
Panic attacks
Impaired ability to concentrate
Cravings: sweets, salt, increased appetitie, binges
Headaches, fatigue,backache

13

Endometriosis def

Presence and growth of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus
6-10% of women

14

Endometriosis Major Symptoms

Dysmenorrhea
Deep pelvic dyspareunia (painful intercourse)

15

Endometriosis Management

Drug therapy
Surgical intervention

16

Endometriosis

Impaired fertility due to adhesions
Treatment: No pain and don’t want to become pregnant do not require tx
NSAID
BCP
Surgery

17

Alterations in cyclic bleeding

Oligomenorrhea-40-45 day cycles
Hypomenorrhea-scanty bleeding
Metrorrhagia-intermittent bleeding
Menorrhagia (hypermenorrhea)-excessive bleeding
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

18

Oligomenorrhea-

40-45 day cycles

19

Hypomenorrhea-

scanty bleeding

20

Metrorrhagia-

intermittent bleeding

21

Menorrhagia (hypermenorrhea)-

excessive bleeding

22

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)

Excessive uterine bleeding, no identified cause
Can have decreased H and H

23

Menopause

Late 40’s
Median age US 51-52
Perimenopause-tranisiton from normal cycle
Complete cessation of menses
Physiologic characteristics - Anovulation occurs more frequently, Menstrual cycles increase in length, Ovulation occurs with less frequency

24

Physical changes during the perimenopausal period

Bleeding
Genital changes
Vasomotor instability-75% of women
Hot flush-look red
Hot flash-feel hot
Night sweats

25

Mood and behavioral responses of Menopause-

persons perception of menopause

26

Health risks of perimenopausal women

(increase)
Osteoporosis
Coronary heart disease

27

Menopausal hormonal therapy

Decision to use hormone therapy
Side effects
Treatment guidelines
Alternative therapies

28

Osteoporosis

Decreased bone density
Estrogen stimulates osteoblast (help form bone)
Estrogen needed to convert Vit D into calcitonin which is needed to absorb calcium form the gut
50% of US women have some form of osteoporosis
(risk factors: caucasian, obese, certain meds)
(tell young girls to drink milk)

29

Coronary Heart Disease

Risk of developing or dying from heart disease after menopause is increased
Obesity, smoking, increased cholesterol, BP, diabetes, alcohol abuse

30

Hormone Replacement Therapy HRT

Until 2002 HRT was widely used
****Study called the Women’s Health Initiative from the National Institutes of Health showed increased clots, heart attack, stroke, breast cancer
Take lowest possible dose for shortest period of time

31

Key Points

Menstrual disorders diminish quality of life for affected women and their families

32

Key Points

PMS is a disorder that begins in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and ends with the onset of menses
Not a purely psychologic problem

33

Key Points

Endometriosis is characterized by secondary amenorrhea, dyspareunia, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility

34

Key Points

The perimenopause is a normal developmental phase progressing from the reproductive to the nonreproductive stage

35

Key Points

During perimenopause, women seek care for bleeding irregularities, vasomotor instability, fatigue, genital changes, and changes related to sexuality

36

Key Points

Alternative therapies are beneficial in relieving discomforts associated with menstrual disorders and menopause

37

Key Points

Osteoporosis: progressive loss of bone mass from decreasing levels of estrogen after menopause
Can be prevented or minimized with lifestyle changes and medication

38

Key Points

Estrogen increases calcitonin levels to prevent bone resorption and maintain bone density

39

Key Points

Postmenopausal women at increased risk for coronary artery disease because of changes in lipid metabolism
Sexuality continues after menopause