Chapter 6 Study Questions Flashcards Preview

ANSI 3543E - Lessons 4-6 > Chapter 6 Study Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Study Questions Deck (38)
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1
Q

describe the importance of water to life

A

life could not be sustained without water – the absences of water could cause death faster than absences of any other nutrient

2
Q

what portion of the body mass is water? molecules?

A

1/2 to 2/3 of body mass in adult animals is water & up to 90% in newborn animals

99% of the body is molecules

3
Q

what are the 2 basic functions of water in the body?

A
  • aids in body metabolism

- temperature regulation

4
Q

what are the 4 important overall functions of water in body metabolism? explain.

A
  • water is a solvent: most cellular protoplasms/cytoplasms is a mixture of colloids & crystalloids in water
  • water is a transport medium: medium for transportation of semisolid digesta in the GI tract, blood, tissue fluids, cells & secretions & in urine & sweat
  • water is a dilutent: provides dilution of cell contents & body fluids so free chemical movement can occur w/in cells & in fluids & GI tract
  • water fxns in hydrolysis & oxidation: in hydrolysis, water is a substrate in the reaction & in oxidation it is a product
5
Q

what is metabolic water?

A

metabolic water is water of oxidation

6
Q

what chemical component yields the most metabolic water upon hydrolysis?

A

the metabolic water/gram is higher in fat

7
Q

which nutrient compound supplies the most net metabolic water?

A

Carbohydrates

8
Q

why don’t hibernating animals need to drink water?

A

the metabolic & preformed water metabolized is enough to sustain normal functions

9
Q

what are the 3 properties of water that allow it to have a marked effect on temperature regulation?

A
  • high specific heat index
  • high thermal conductivity
  • high latent heat of vaporization
10
Q

how can an animal increase heat loss through its lungs?

A

the lungs have a large evaporative surface area.

11
Q

can you think of an environmental situation in which evaporative cooling would not be very efficient & one where it would be highly efficient?

A

evaporative cooling would be less efficient in humid environments & dry environments it would be very efficient.

12
Q

how many calories are lost from the body by evaporating 5 grams of water?

A

1 gram of water requires 580 calories of heat so…

580 (5 grams) = 2900 calories

13
Q

how does the body prevent itself from having large changes in temperature?

A

the body has a great capacity to store heat — this prevents sudden temperature changes

14
Q

how is water’s thermal conductivity useful in dissipating body heat?

A

evaporation of body water

15
Q

where is water absorbed in the digestive tract?

A

most sections of the GI tract:

- ruminants: rumen & omasum

16
Q

what are 5 sources of water to an animal?

A
  • drinking water
  • water in or on feed
  • metabolic water
  • water liberated from metabolic reactions
  • preforms of water associated w/ body tissues (catabolized during a negative energy state)
17
Q

what types of factors determine the relative importance of these to a specific animal?

A

diet, habitat & the ability to conserve body water

18
Q

compare the water needs of a desert rat to that of a producing livestock.

A

desert rat: will not require drinking water except in rare occasions
livestock: require copious amounts of drinking water when producing at a high level, especially when heat stressed

19
Q

why do you think dairy cows drink so much more water than beef cows?

A

they are constantly lactating (producing milk) & milk is made mostly of water

20
Q

is the water in feed an important contributor to livestock water needs? if so, how important?

A

forage = 5-7% water
hay = 90% water
young lush vegetation = 90% water

the precipitation & dew on ingested feed may account for a very substantial amount of water consumption

21
Q

describe one (or more) situations where a perfectly normal animal might not need to drink water

A
  • hibernating animals
  • foraging animals
  • desert animals
  • less active animals
22
Q

describe the methods of water loss from the body in detail, but no great detail than the course guide.

A
  • expired water from lungs
  • vaporization from the skin
  • water lost in feces
  • water lost in urine
23
Q

why is it difficult to delineate the water requirements of an animal?

A

b/c numerous dietary & environmental factors affect water absorption & excretion — water is important in regulation of body temperature

24
Q

what is the relationship between dry matter consumption & water consumption as long as the animal is not in heat stress?

A

water consumption is linearly related to heat production when the animal is not in heat stress

25
Q

describe how heat stress can affect water needs for animals. give a concrete example.

A

heat stress can cause a decrease in feed consumption & an increase in water consumption greatly.

i.e cattle at 40F, the water consumption per unit of dry matter consumption is at 0.35 gal/lb. vs. at 100F, the water consumption per unit of dry matter is at 1.9 gal/lb.

26
Q

what happens to water consumption in relation to water need on lush pastures?

A

there is a higher water consumption than needed when the forage is lush with high water content.

27
Q

how does protein intake affect water intake?

A

protein increases water requirements b/c of urea that is toxic & must be diluted to prevent it from damaging the kidney

28
Q

how does urea consumption affect urine volume?

A

urea requires a good deal of water for excretion. uric acid requires very little water so poultry species don’t have volumous urine

29
Q

milk is mostly water. why do nursing animals need more water?

A

the high content of protein in milk results in high obligatory urinary water loss & w/out additional water performance will be reduced

30
Q

how does fat consumption affect water intake?

A

increase intake of fat will also cause an increase in water intake

31
Q

what is the effect of salt consumption on water consumption & excretion?

A

salt increases consumption & excretion of water greatly

32
Q

generally speaking, how much water do animals need per quantity of dry feed consumed?

A

2-5 kg H2O/kg dry feed consumed

33
Q

what is the normal ration of water consumption to dry matter consumption for cattle? sheep? why do cattle need more?

A

cattle: 4:1 — need more b/c they aren’t as efficient at storing water
sheep: 5:1

34
Q

how does the water consumption of birds compare to mammals?

A

birds require less water consumption mammals

35
Q

how does young vs. adult affect for how much water is required?

A

young animals require more water per unit of body weight than adults

36
Q

how does activity affect how much water is required?

A

nervous animals will consume more water than less active ones

37
Q

how does milk production affect water consumption in cattle?

A

water consumption will be increased by milk production

38
Q

is there a valid reason for not allowing an animal unlimited access to water?

A

calves: death may result due to large amounts of water suddenly ingested due to kidneys slow adaptation to sudden high water load.