Chapter 6 - World Languages and Language Families Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - World Languages and Language Families Deck (58):
1

Sanskrit

-Discovered by Sir William Jones in 1789

-Gave insight to the relationship between languages

2

Proto-Indo-European (PIE)

-Related Sanskrit and other Indian languages to European languages

-Reconstructed language

-Hypothesized language family

3

Name the major Proto-Indo European branches.

-Albanian

-Armenian

-Baltic

-Celtic

-Germanic

-Greek

-Indo-Iranian

-Italic

-Slavic

4

Describe the Albanian branch

-Includes Albanian, Gheg

-Spoken in Albania and Serbia

5

Describe the Armenian branch

-Included Armenian

-Spoken in Armenia

6

Describe the Baltic branch

-Includes Latvian, Lithuanian

-Spoken in Latvia and Lithuania

7

Describe the Celtic branch

Continental branch (Extinct)

Insular branch
{Brythonic / P-Celtic}
-Welsh, Breton, Cornish (Ex)

{Goildelic / Q-Celtic}
-Welsh, Manx (Ex)

-Spoken in the UK and Ireland

8

Describe the Germanic branch

West Germanic:
-Includes Yiddish, English, Frisian, Dutch

North Germanic:
{West Scandinavian}
-Includes Faroese, Icelandic

{East Scandinavian}
-Includes Danish, Swedish

East Germanic:
-Includes Gothic, Bargundian, Vanadian
-All East Germanic Languages are extinct

-Spoken in Germany, Scandinavia, North America etc.

9

Describe the Greek branch

-Includes Greek, Pontic

-Spoken in Greece

10

Describe the Indo-Iranian branch

-Includes Sanskrit, Hindi

-Spoken in India, Pakistan etc.

11

Describe the Italic Branch

Western Romance
{Ibero-Romance}
-Includes Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Castilian, Austrian

{Gallo Romance}
-Includes Lombard, Venetian, French, Walloon

Italian / Cillian
-Includes Italian

-Spoken in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal etc.

12

Describe the Slavic branch

West Slavic
-Includes Czech, Slovak, Polish

East Slavic
-Includes Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian

South Slavic
-Includes Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene

13

Latin

-Hard to classify as it is has no native speakers, but the Vatican state and Catholic church use it

-Oldest Italic language

14

Pidgin

Two languages meet and attempt to communicate

15

Creole

-A creole is formed when a Pidgin language evolves far enough to start having native speakers

-A mash up of two different languages that has native speakers

16

What are the two unique Germanic languages in Canada?

Hutterisch and Plautdietsch

17

Differences between Walloon and French

-Walloon has no gender marking

-Walloon has nasal vowels and distinct vowel length

-Walloon's adjectives precede their nouns

18

What are some typological features of the Slavic branch?

-Palatal consonants [tS] / [d3]

-Fusional Morphology

19

Describe the Uralic family

Finno-Urgic
{Urgic}
-Includes Hungarian, Khanty, Mansi

{Finnic}
-Includes Finnish, Estonian

Typology: agglutinating, vowel harmony, no gender morphology (not even pronouns)

-Indo-European Family

20

Describe the Altaic language family

Turkic
-Includes Turkishir, Turkmen, Uzbek, Kazakh etc.

Mongolic
-Includes Mongolian, Buryat

Tungusic
-Includes Evenki, Nani, Manch

Japonic
-Includes Japanese, Ryukyuan

Korean
-Includes Korean

Typology: Agglutinating, vowel harmony

21

Describe the Afro-Asiatic Branch

Berber
-Spoken in Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania

Chadic
-Spoken in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad

Cushititc
-Spoken in Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea

Semetic
-Spoken in Israel (Hebrew), Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Syria, Iraq (Arabic), Ethiopia (Amharic)

Omotic

Egyptian (Extinct)
-Includes Coptic and Ancient Egyptian

Typology: Templatic morphology, VSO word order, Glottalization, Pharyngealization

22

Describe the Sino-Tibetan branch

Chinese
-Largest branch in terms of number of speakers
-Includes Mandarin, Cantonese etc.

Tibeto-Burman
-Spoken in Tibet and Burma

Typology: Isolating morphology, tonal

23

Isolating Morphology

One morpheme conveys the meaning of a word

Eg. Chinese is very isolating, as each character (morpheme) represents one word

24

Agglutinating Morphology

-Multiple suffixes added to word roots

-Each suffix conveys some type of meaning

-Lots of noun cases

25

Phoneme

Distinct speech sounds

26

Morpheme

Smallest units of language that convey meaning

27

Affix

Morphemes that attach before (prefix) or after (suffix) the root

28

Analytic Languages

-Isolating languages

-No affixes

-1 word = 1 root morpheme

29

Synthetic Language

-Fusional / Agglutinating languages

-Contain cases and holes

30

Fusional Language

-1 word = 1 root + inflectional morphemes

-Inflectional Morpheme: encodes several meanings

Eg. Russian, French

31

Polysynthetic Language

1 word = 1 sentence

-Contains root word (verb/noun), the rest of the meaning is conveyed in affixes

Eg. Cree, Inuit and many other North American Indigenous languages

32

Mixed Type Language

Languages with elements from two or more morphological categories

Eg. English = fusional + isolating

33

Diachronic

Historically isolating language

34

Templatic Morphology

-Seen in Semitic languages

-Consonantal roots with added vowels to convey meaning

35

Preposition

Words that come before the noun

36

Postposition

Words that come after the noun

37

Syntactic Typology

-Word order

-Scrambling languages can move their words around

-Unmarked word order is the basic, most common word order found in any particular language

38

Comparitve Method

-Comparing phonemes in corresponding words in various languages

Two major rules:

-Sound change plausibility
=Sounds are more likely to...
= be deleted rather than inserted
=be palatalized before front vowels
=be voiced between vowels
be devoiced word finally

-Majority rule
=If there is one exception, it will be ignored

Eg. If all words in a cognate begin with s except for one., reconstruction will include a s at the beginning

39

Segmental Sound Change

Simplification of sounds

Eg. Deaffrication

40

Sequential Sound Change

-Change in sound sequence

-Most common

Eg. Assimilation

41

Auditory Based Sound Change

Based on auditory similarites

42

Assimilation

-Sequential sound change

-Two sound segments become more similar

-Assimilation of place, manner, voicing or palatalization

43

Dissimilation

-Sequential sound change

-Two sound segments become less similar

-Can occur at a distance

-Dissimilation of place, manner, voicing or palatalization

44

Epenthesis

-Sequential sound change

-Addition of a sound segment into a word

-Caused by anticipation of upcoming sounds

-Can aid in pronunciation

45

Metathesis

-Sequential sound change

-Sound segments get shifted around

-Spoonerisms

46

Vowel Reduction / Weakening

Weakening of a vowel to a schwa

47

Vowel Deletion

Apocope: word final vowel deletion

Syncope: word internal vowel deletion

48

Consonant Deletion

-Loss of consonant in any position

-Lost consonant still reflected in spelling

Eg. Knight, knife etc.

49

Consonant Weakening

Scale of consonantal strength: (strongest to weakest)

Voiceless Stops

Voiceless Fricatives / Voiced Stops

Voiced Fricatives

Nasals

Liquids

Glides

-Consonant strengthening occurs in the opposite direction

50

Degemination

-Geminate consonants are stronger than degeminate consonants

Eg. tt - geminate

51

Intervocalic / Intersonorant Voicing

-Assimilation

-Voiceless stops become voiced

52

Spirantization / Frication

Fricatives occur between two vowels intervocalically

53

Sonority Scale

From most to least sonorous:

Vowels

Approximants

Nasals

Fricatives

Affricates

Stops

54

Split

Same phoneme splits into separate phonemes in different dialects of the same language

55

Merge

Two distinct phonemes become one phoneme in a language

56

Shift

Systematic rearrangement of phonemes in a sound system

57

Grimm's Law

-Rasmus Rask and Jakob Grimm

-Explains the differences in sounds between Germanic languages and other Indo-European languages

58

Great Vowel Shift

-Otto Jespersen

-Officially began 15th century, officially ended 18th century

-Major series of changes affecting how vowels in English are pronounced

-Affected every dialect