Chapter 7 - Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors Flashcards Preview

Nu 578: Ch 4-19 Exam 1 > Chapter 7 - Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors Deck (16):
1

Adverse Drug Reactions?

is any noxious, unintended, and undesired effect that occurs at normal drug doses

2

Side Effect?

a nearly unavoidable secondary drug effect produced at therapeutic doses

3

Toxicity?

the degree of detrimental physiologic effects caused by excessive drug dosing

4

Allergic Reaction?

is an immune response. For an allergic reaction to occur, there must be prior sensitization of the immune system. Once the immune system has been sensitized to a drug, reexposure to that drug can trigger an allergic response.

5

Anaphylaxis?

is a life-threatening response characterized by bronchospasm, 63laryngeal edema, and a precipitous drop in blood pressure

6

The intensity of an allergic reaction is determined primarily by ___

the degree of sensitization of the immune system, not by drug dosage.

7

Which drug family causes the most allergic reactions?

The penicillins.

8

An idiosyncratic effect?

an uncommon drug response resulting from a genetic predisposition

9

What is an example of an idiosyncratic effect?

people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked inherited condition that commonly occurs in people with African and Mediterranean ancestry. When people with G6PD deficiency take drugs such as sulfonamides or aspirin, they develop varying degrees of red blood cell hemolysis, which may become life threatening.

10

Iatrogenic Disease

disease that occurs as the result of medical care or treatment - a disease produced by drugs

11

amphotericin B causes injury to _____

kidneys

12

amiodarone can cause injuries to the _____

lungs

13

What two liver tests are done for LFT's?

aminotransferase (AST, formerly known as SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, formerly known as SGPT

14

QT interval is a measure of______

time required for the ventricles to repolarize after each contraction.

15

QT interval is a measure of______.

time required for the ventricles to repolarize after each contraction.

16

What can prolonged QT interval cause?

patients can develop a dysrhythmia known as torsades de pointes, which can progress to potentially fatal ventricular fibrillation.