Command-line interface. An interface that enables the user to interact with the operating system by entering commands and optional arguments.
Cisco Catalyst 2960: Syst LED
Overall system status
Cisco Catalyst 2960: RPS LED
Suggests the status of the redundant power supply
Cisco Catalyst 2960: STAT LED
If green (on), implies that each port LED implies that port's status
Cisco Catalyst 2960: DUPLX LED
If green (on), each port LED implies that port's duplex (on/green is full; off means half) status
Cisco Catalyst 2960: SPEED LED
If green (on), implies that each port LED implies that port's speed
Cisco Catalyst 2960: MODE LED
Cylces the meaning of the LEDs through three states (stat, duplx, speed)
Cisco Catalyst 2960: Port LEDs
The LED has different meanings dpending on the port mode as toggled using the mode button
Cisco Catalyst 2960: Display options of the Syst LED
Off - Switch is not powered on / On, green - switch is on and operational / On, amber - Switch is on but not functioning properly
Action to take if Cisco Catalyst 2960 Syst LED is amber
Switch the switch off and on again
Cisco Catalyst 2960: Display options for port LEDs when mode is STAT
Off: link is not working or switch is off / solid green: link is working, there is no traffic / flashing green: link is working and traffic is pasing over the interface / flashing amber: port is blocked by spanning tree
Cisco Catalyst 2960: Display options for port LEDs when mode is SPEED
off means 10mbps, solid greens means 100mbps and flashing green means 1gbps
3 ways to access a switch CLI
Console (direct connectio nto the switch, via USB, serial, etc), Telnet, and secure shell (SSH)
3 ways to connect a console to a switch
PC's serial port to SW's RJ45 port via a rollover cable; PC's USB port to SW's USB port via USB cable; PC's usb port to USB-to-console-cable-converter via USB cable. Converter to SW's RJ-45 port via rollover cable
Default console port settings on a switch:
9600 bits/second, no hardware flow control, and 8N1 (8 bit ASCII, no parity bits, 1 stop bit)
Requirements before one can use telnet / ssh to manage a switch
switch must have an IP address and network between client and server (PC running telnet client and switch running telnet server) must be online.
By default, Cisco switches only enable one type of connection to itself
Consol connections. Telnet/SSH are disabled.
Command to configure password "faith" for console access
line console 0 / login / password faith
Command to configure password "love" for all telnet access for all 16 concurrent Telnet sessions
line vty 0 15 / login / password love
A mode of the user interface to a router or switch in which the user can type only nondisruptive EXEC commands, generally just to look at the current status, but not to change any operational settings.
user mode aka
user EXEC mode
A part of the Cisco IOS CLI in which the user can use the most powerful and potentially disruptive commands on a router or switch, including the ability to then reach configuration mode and reconfigure the router.
Command to switch from user mode to enable mode
"enable" -- you may need to enter a password
command to restart the switch
"reload" -- you will need to be in enable mode
Commands that can be used in use mode or enable mode
Command for: list all commands that start with "com"
Command for: Get help for the command "Command"
Command for: Get help for the command paramater "Command param1"
Command for: Get a list of all the parameters and their functions after the first parameter in the "Command" command
Command param1 ?
Command for: List all commands available in this mode
Command for: Previous command
Up arrow or Ctrl+P
Command for: Next command
Down arrow or Ctrl+N
Command for: move the cursor back to edit the command
Left arrow or Ctrl+B
Command for: move the cursor to the right to edit the command
Right arrow or Ctrl+F
Command for: "home" equivalent -- move the cursor to the front of the command
Command for: "end" equivalent -- move the cursor to the end of the command
Command for: Interrupt the current command
Lists the currently known facts about the switch's operational status. Has many optiosn to specify what specifically to show the user
Monitors different processes of the switch and sends ongoing messages to the user when events occur
"Show" command vs "Debug" command
Show tells the user what's happening at a point in time (point statement) and a debug command shows what's true over time. Debug requires more CPU cycles.
While the Show command only displays info for the current user, the debug command
Creates log messages, viewable to any user to uses the "terminal monitor" command from enable mode
Command for: check the CPU utilization
Allows for commands that tell the switch the details of what to do and how to do it.
Command to enter configuration mode
Command to leave configuration mode to enable mode
"end" key or Ctrl+Z
List the four common switch configuration modes
Global, Line, Interface, VLAN
After using the "configure terminal" command, enter command to enter Global configuration mode
None. This is the mode you're in as soon as you enter configuration mode
After using the "configure terminal" command, enter command to enter Line configuration submode
line console 0 (where 0 is the first serial port) or line vty 0 15 (where 0 is the first concurrent session and 15 is the 16th)
After using the "configure terminal" command, enter command to enter Interface configuration submode
"interface x" where x is the interface number
After using the "configure terminal" command, enter command to enter VLAN configuration submode
"vlan x" where x is the vlan number.
What does the prompt look like when you're configuring a line?
What does the prompt look like when you're configuring an interface?
What does the prompt look like when you're configuring a VLAN
What does the prompt look like when you're in configuration mode?
If you're in a configuration submode, what command gets you back to the global configuration mode?
If you're in the global configuration mode, what command gets you back to the enable mode?
End or Ctrl+Z
List the four types of memory found in a Cisco switch
RAM (AKA DRAM), ROM, Flash Memory, NVRAM
In a Cisco switch, RAM is used for -
(Dynamic) Random Access Memory. Used by the switch for working storage, just as any PC would use it. Running (active) configuration file is stored here.
In a Cisco switch, ROM is used for -
Read-only memory. Stores a boostrap/boothelper program that is loaded when switch powers on. The program finds the full Cisco IOS image and manages process of loading Cisco IOS into RAM.
In a Cisco switch, Flash memory is used for -
Stores functional Cisco IOS images. Default location where switch gets Cisco IOS at boot time. Can also store backup copies of configuration files
In a Cisco switch, NVRAM is used for -
Nonvolatile RAM. Stores initial or startup config file that is used when switch is first powered on and when the switch is reloaded.
Name the two Cisco IOS Configuration Files
Startup Config, Running Config
The initial configuration used anytime the switch reloads Cisco IOS. Stored in NVRAM.
Currently used configuration commands. Changes dynamically when someine enters commands in config mode.
What do you have to do to make changes to the startup config?
Change the running config in configuration mode, then save the changes to NVRAM, saving over the startup config.
Where is the startup config stored?
Where is the running config stored?
Command to display the running config
Command to display the startup config
Command to override the startup config with the running config
copy running-config startup-config
Command to move the startup config to a TFTP server
copy startup-config tftp
Command to move a config on a TFTP server to the startup config
copy tftp startup-config
Command to move the config on a TFTP server to the running config
copy tftp running-config
How does a copy into RAM -- therefore overwriting the running config -- (from TFTP or NVRAM) work?
As if the commands in the config were entered from the running config's stop point, effectively merging the running config and the config you've copied.
Three commands to erase the NVRAM
write erase, erase startup-config, erase nvram
Result of erasing the NVRAM
startup config goes away. Reloading the switch will leave the switch with no config
Recommended command to erase the NVRAM
Two methods to set up an initial, basic configuration
Configuration Mode, setup mode
An option on Cisco IOS switches and routers that prompts the user for basic configuration information, resulting in new running-config and startup-config files.
Official term for setup mode
initial configuration dialogue
Six things that result from the "show version" command
IOS version, time since last load of the IOS, reason for last load of the IOS, number of fast ethernet interfaces, number of gigabit ethernet interfaces, switch model number
Q: See diagram