Flashcards in Chapter 7: The Use of Computer Technology in Society Deck (26):
What are the three main types of computer related issues?
What are the three main acts of Parliament regarding computer systems and legal issues?
1. The Data Protection Act: protects individuals' data
2. The Health and Safety at Work Act: makes employers responsible for their staff
3. The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act: makes it illegal to use software without buying the appropriate licenses
The Data Protection Acts states that an individual's data must be... (8)
1. Used fairly and lawfully
2. Used for limited, specifically stated purposes
3. Used in relevant ways, and not excessively
5. Kept for no longer than is absolutely necessary
6. Handled according to people's data protection rights
7. Kept safe and secure
8. Not transferred outside the European Economic Area without adequate protection
What does the Health and Safety at Work Act entail? (2, 4)
Designers of computer systems should consider:
2. Any health implications of software, screen layout, input methods and hardware
Individuals working with computers in the office can expect:
1. Appropriate desks
2. Adjustable chairs
3. Non-reflective lighting
The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act
Protects the software writers from people making illegal copies, although it is difficult to enforce
Common computer ethics issues (6)
1. Intellectual property rights e.g. copyrighted electronic content
2. Privacy concerns
3. The impact of computers on society e.g. loss of jobs
4. The digital divide: is it fair that some cannot afford computers or access the Internet?
5. Exploitation of certain countries, e.g. India, for cheap labour (e.g. programming, call centre work etc.)
6. Creating systems with accessibility problems
What percentage of the world's population had access to the Internet in 2011?
Environmental considerations include... (4)
1. Does a computer system mean more manufacturing?
2. Do computer-managed engines work more efficiently i.e. less pollution and less fuel used?
3. Do computer systems allow people to work from home? Is this more eco-friendly than working in an office?
4. Carbon footprint and waste productions from manufacturing, although these are often outweighed by managing processes which might otherwise generate more pollution
Unwanted electrical items
What regulations did the European Union draw up in 2007 to encourage the recycling of eWaste?
The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) regulations. They make sure that less eWaste goes to landfills and any valuable materials recycled
How much eWaste does the UK throw away each year?
2 million tonnes
What are a couple of examples of how eWaste materials can be recycled?
1. Zinc from old mobiles can be reused in ship building
2. The gold and platinum found in computers and consoles can be melted down to make jewellery
Why do western companies ship recyclable items to developing countries?
What problems does this lead to?
It is legal and costs less: it only costs $2 to recycle a computer in China that would cost $30 in the US.
Many items sent are incorrectly classified, so as to avoid the costs of recycling.
What areas of society has the use of computer technology impacted? (6)
3. Social interaction
Pros of the impact of computers on Communication (2)
1. Communication is almost instant via email, text, etc.
2. Images, video and most file types can be sent and received almost anywhere in the world
Cons of the impact of computers on Communication (2)
1. Employees can experience work-related stress due to the expectation to respond to messages at any time
2. Cyberbullying, which especially affects young people
Pros of the impact of computers on Employment (5)
1. Offers millions of jobs (e.g. computer technicians, programmers, web designers, system analysts)
2. People no longer have to do some menial or dangerous jobs (e.g. there are robots to investigate bombs)
3. People have more time to do things besides menial tasks
4. Storing and processing data takes much less time (e.g. spreadsheets are much quicker than manual payrolls)
5. Money can be transferred to employees' accounts automatically
Cons of the impact of computers on Employment (5)
1. Computer-controlled warehouses only need a handful of staff, often replacing human workers in production lines
2. The skills of those who were in the printing industry are now out-of-date
3. Some jobs have disappeared as they can be done automatically e.g. marking multiple choice papers
4. Workers made unemployed are unlikely to have been re-skilled for new jobs
5. Cybercrime is a growing concern
Pros of the impact of computers on Social interaction (5)
1. Social networking sites can be used to keep in touch with friends and family
2. Communication across the world is cheap and easy
3. Internet dating sites can be used to meet people instead of going to bars and clubs
4. People can game with friends in their own houses
5. Social networking using computer tech has become the norm
Cons of the impact of computers on Social interaction (3)
1. eSafety problems
3. People are losing the ability to interact face-to-face
Pros of the impact of computers on Shopping (4)
1. Opens the market to customers nationally and internationally
2. Enables smaller companies to compete with larger ones
3. Reduces in staffing reduces costs
4. Can provide 24 hour shopping at minimum additional cost
Cons of the impact of computers on Shopping (5)
1. Stiffer competition: businesses can find themselves competing globally
2. Staff reductions mean less jobs
3. Restructuring costs
4. Customer concerns (e.g. the digital divide)
Pros of the impact of computers on Manufacturing (3)
1. Item production is faster and cheaper
2. Greater job satisfaction for employees, as menial jobs are done by robots
3. Computer regulated production lines are more consistent and precise
Cons of the impact of computers on Manufacturing (4)
1. Software can be expensive
2. Loss of low skilled jobs
3. Less of a market for handmade, crafted items
4. High levels of training or re-skilling needed to operate the system
Pros of the impact of computers on Safety (2)
1. Many dangerous jobs can now be done by remote controlled devices and sensors (e.g. bomb disposal robots)
2. Weather data can be collected from dangerous areas, (e.g. in a volcano) without scientists needing to collect it themselves every day