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Flashcards in Chapter 76 Deck (55)
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1

The thyroid is found below what?

The Larygneal prominence.

2

What 3 things will the thyroid gland control?

1. How quickly the body burns energy. 2. How quickly the body makes proteins. 3. How sensitive the body should be to other hormones.

3

What is the major cell type in the thyroid gland?

Follicular.

4

What is the difference between T3 and T4?

T3 is 4 times as biologically active.

5

Thyroglobulin stores what?

Tyrosine

6

Where is thyroglobulin made and stored?

Made and stored in the thyroid gland.

7

What directly influences the trapping of iodine in the thyroid gland?

TSH

8

What happens to the thyroid gland in areas of the world with iodine lacking from diet?

They get enlarged and swollen, because there is a surge of TSH.

9

What is the Number 1 cause of thyroid problems worldwide?

Iodine deficiency

10

What is the Number 1 cause of thyroid problems in the U.S.?

Autoimmune disease.

11

93% of the hormone created in the thyroid gland is what (give both names)?

thyroxine aka T4

12

What is iodine recyling?

75% of tyrosine remains as mono- and diiodotyrosine which can be cleaved by deiodinase enzymes resulting in free iodine that can be used again.

13

An absence of deiodinase enzyme will result in what?

An iodine deficiency.

14

Only what form of T3 can be biologicaly active?

Only free thyroid hormones that don’t have a plasma protein bound to them.

15

T3 or T4 which hormone has a greater binding affinity for plasma proteins?

T4.

16

How long will it take for T3 and T4 hormones to be released to the tissues?

T3- 50% every day. T4- 50% every 6 days.

17

In general thyroid hormones do what?

Increase metabolic activity.

18

Hypothyroid equals what?

Retarded physical growth.

19

Hyperthyroid equals what?

Excessice growth.

20

What are the thyroid hormones effects of carbohydrates and fats?

They stiumulate almost all aspects of carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

21

Thyroid hormone is inversely proportional to what?

Total serum cholesterol levels.

22

Low levels of thyroid hormone leads to what?

Excessive deposition of fat in the liver and severe atherosclerosis.

23

What will excess thyroid hormone secretin do to basal metabolic rate (BMR)?

Can increase it up to 60-100%.

24

A relative vitamin deficiency can occur when?

With thyroid hormone excess.

25

Increased thyroid hormones will do what to cardiovascular function?

Increase the blood flow and therefore increase the cardiac output as much as 1.5 times normal.

26

Severe hyperthyroid may lead to what?

Myocardial failure.

27

What are the sexual effects of thyroid problems in women and men?

Women- menorrhagia, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or amenorrhea. Hypothyroid = low libido. Men- Hypothyroid= low libido, and hyperthyroid = impotence.

28

How will hyper and hypothyroidism effect GI motility?

Hyper- diarrhea and hypo- constipation.

29

How will hyper and hypothyroidism effect the excitation of the CNS?

hyper- nervousness, anxiety, paranoia. Hypo- poor memory, concentration problems.

30

How will hyperthyroidism effect muscle function?

weakness and muscle tremors.