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Flashcards in chapter 8 Deck (27)
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1

shows the particular orbitals that electrons occupy for the atom

electron configuration

2

represent the lowest energy state for electrons

ground state electron configurations

3

no two electrons in an atom may have the same self four quantum numbers.
this means no orbital can hold more than two electrons

pauli exclusion principle

4

when two electrons occupy the same orbital, they are

spin paired

5

like charges repel and opposite charges attract

coulomb's law

6

the masking of nuclear charge by other electrons

shielding

7

the charge felt by electrons in comparison to the actual nuclear charge

effective nuclear charge

8

when an electron penetrates the electron cloud and moves closer to the nucleus, it experiences

the full positive charge of the nucleus

9

orbitals should be filled starting with the lowest energy orbitals and proceeding to higher energy orbitals

auf bau principle

10

each degenerate orbital will have one electron in it before any electrons are paried

hund's rule

11

the spins in singly occupied orbitals remain parallel until the second electron enters the orbital

hund's rule

12

the inner electrons which lie closer to the nuclues

core electrons

13

outer electrons

valence electrons

14

periodic trends are based largelyy on

effective nuclear charge

15

all atoms lose their ________ first to form cations

highest energy electrons

16

for ns electrons, the ns electrons are lose _______ the (n-1)d electrons

before

17

cations cause the electron radius to go

smaller

18

anions cause the electron radius to

increase

19

electrons are held more tightly from ______ to _____ across a period

left to right

20

the minimum energy needed to remove an electron from a neutral atom in the gas phase

first ionization energy

21

first ionization energy increases how, periodic trend?

up a group and from left to right across a period

22

is associated with removing a second electron this Time from a 1+ ion

second ionization energy

23

the energy released when an electron Is added to a gas-phase atom

electron affinity

24

general trend shows that oxygen should have a higher first ionization energy than ____ but it does not

nitrogen

25

what is special about the electron configuration of nitrogen

it has one unpaired electron in each of the three 2p orbitals

26

all group 5A elements invert first ionization energy order with the group ____ element in their row

6A

27

all group 5A elements invert electron affinity order with the group ____ element in their row

4A