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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (11)
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1

chronometric

(chronos, meaning “time,” and metric, meaning “measure”) Referring to a dating technique that gives an estimate in actual numbers of years.

2

oldowan industry

The earliest recognized stone tool culture, including very simple tools, mostly small flakes.

3

stratigraphy

Study of the sequential layering of geological deposits.

4

mosaic evolution

A pattern of evolution in which the rate of evolution in one functional system varies from that in other systems. For example, in hominin evolution, the dental system, locomotor system, and neurological system (especially the brain) all evolved at markedly different rates.

5

australopiths

A colloquial name referring to a diverse group of Plio-Pleistocene African hominins. Australopiths are the most abundant and widely distributed of all early hominins and are also the most completely studied.

6

sagittal crest

A ridge of bone that runs down the middle of the cranium like a short Mohawk. This serves as the attachment for the large temporal muscles, indicating strong chewing.

7

obligate bipedalism

Bipedalism as the only form of hominin terrestrial locomotion. Major anatomical changes in the spine, pelvis, and lower limb are required for bipedal locomotion, so once hominins adapted this mode of locomotion, other forms of locomotion on the ground became impossible.

8

habitual bipedalism

Bipedal locomotion as the form of locomotion shown by hominins most of the time.

9

faunal

Referring to animal remains; in archaeology, specifically refers to the fossil (skeletonized) remains of animals.

10

artifacts

Objects or materials made or modified for use by hominins. The earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone or, occasionally, bone.

11

postcranial

Referring to all or part of the skeleton not including the skull. The term originates from the fact that in quadrupeds, the body is in back of the head; the term literally means “behind the head.”