Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (17):
1

spontaneous

does not require energy

2

non spontaneous

requires energy input

3

∆G

-change in free energy/ usable energy
-G final - G initial

4

∆H

change in stored energy bonds

5

∆S

change in entropy

6

exergonic / ∆G < 0

-reactants have high free energy than products
-spontaneous

7

endergonic / ∆G > 0

-products hhave higher free energy than reactants
-non spontaneous

8

1st law of thermodynamics

energy cannot be created or destroyed

9

2nd law of thermodynamics

entropy always increases or stays the same

10

why do enzymes speed up chemical reactions

-enzymes minimize reaction time by lowering activation energy
-enzymes can change protein conformation
-enzyme scan change inactive protein to an active site

11

competitive inhibitor

-molecule that stops or shuts down enzyme function by plugging itself in the active site
-thus competing with the substrate for active site

12

allosteric regulator

-molecule that binds to an enzyme somewhere other than the active site and inhibits binding
-changes shape of active site

13

conformation of enzyme

-crucial to its activity
-denaturation changes enzyme shape
-no longer able to catalyze reactions

14

free energy graph for coupling of two reactions

-exergonic reaction where high energy bonds are broken to release energy
-then energy put into endergonic reactions

15

how is ATP created

mitocondria creates ATP from glucose when a carbon is reduced

16

primary role of ATP in cells

drive endergonic reactions through energy releases in hydrolysis reaction

17

how does the structure of ATP allow molecule to have this role

-phosphorylate substrates and drive chemical reactions in the cell through the loss of one of its phosphate groups