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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (28):
1

Mutation

A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA that results in a recognizable change in the organism; an altered mRNA sequence, which will possibly result in the formation of the incorrect protein synthesis

2

Substitution

A type of mutation where one nucleotide is replaced with another of a different base:
CGT (codes for alanine) ---mutation---> (A)GT (codes for serine)

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Removal (Deletion)

A type of mutation that occurs when one nucleotide is removed randomly and not replaced with another nucleotide:
- a gene: CGT, GCA GTT, T__,... codes for alanine, arginine, glutamine
- A removed: CGT, GCG, TTT... codes for alanine, arginine, lysine

4

Addition (Insertion)

A type of mutation that occurs when a nucleotide is added randomly:
- a gene: CGT, GCA, GTT... codes for alanine, arginine, glutamine
- addition: CGT, G(A)C, AGT... codes for alanine, eucine, serine

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Thymine Dimers

A type of mutation that occurs when two adjacent thymine bases form a covalent bond between them and distort the double helix, damaging the DNA; caused by exposing DNA to UV or X-rays

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Cellular Effects of Mutation

- Death: most are detrimental
- Benefit: some provide a benefit (increased antibiotic resistance)
- No change: some will not change the protein constructed or only affect a portion of the chromosome that is not important

7

Spontaneous Mutation

Occurs randomly during DNA replication (occurs 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 1,000,000,000 replications for every single gene)

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Induced Mutation

DNA is exposed to mutagens

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Mutagens

A physical or chemical agent that causes changes to genetic material; increase the risk of mutations by 10-1000X

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Light Repair

Type of thymine dimer repair in which cells that possess the enzyme photolyase will repair these mutations when exposed to visible light; the enzyme breaks the covalent bonds between the thymines

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Dark Repair

Type of thymine dimer repair in which visible light is not necessary; one enzyme compares the complementary strand of DNA and finds and removes the mutation; DNA polymerase replaces the correct base back into the DNA sequence

12

Proofreading by DNA Polymerase

This enzyme compares what base was incorporated to the template, if the bases are not complementary, then the correct base is incorporated into the new strand

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Mismatch Repair

If DNA polymerase misses a wrong base, the another back-up system is used to repair mutations - Ultraviolet light repair system

14

Ultraviolet Light Repair System (Uvr)

- Two Uvr A proteins and one Uvr B (trimer) attach to the DNA molecule then move down the molecule scanning for damage
- Once damage is found, the trimer stops and the two Uvr A proteins are released; Uvr B remains
- Uvr C attaches to the Uvr B anc uts the DNA on both sides of the damaged DNA several nucleotides away
- Uvr D (a DNA helicase) releases the segment of DNA and Uvr B, C, and D are released
- The DNA sequence that now needs to be replicated is filled in with complementary nucleotides using DNA polymerase and is sealed with DNA ligase

15

Transformation

A method of gene transfer in which bacterial cells take up naked DNA molecules; conducted by both gram+ and gram- organisms; Griffith's mice experiment

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Competent Bacteria

Cells that have large holes that allow pieces of DNA (20 genes) to enter the cell

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Natural Competence

Under certain environmental conditions or certain bacteria (soil microbes), a cell will be competent

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Artificial Competence

Use of an electrical current to create large holes

19

Transduction

The most common type of gene transfer that occurs in every bacteria cell:
- A bacteriophage enters a bacteria cell, uses deoxyribonuclease to digest the chromosome into small pieces; the DNA or RNA of the virus is also replicated
- Some sections of the bacteria chromosome are integrated into the new viruses
- The viruses leave the infected bacterial cell and deposit the bacterial DNA section into a new bacterial cell

20

Bacteriophage

A virus that infects and replicates within bacteria

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Conjugation

A type of gene transfer that is uncommon and requires physical contact between bacteria; occurs mostly in gram- bacteria:
- Plasmids replicate and then are transferred from donor to recipient cells (only in one direction) using pili

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Plasmid

Small, circular DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell

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Donor (F+) Cells

Contain the genes on the plasmid that code for the pilus and the ability to be able to transfer DNA to other cells (F stands for fertility)

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Recipient (F-) Cells

No plasmid that codes for pilus; can only receive plasmid; once mixed, will become F+

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R Factor Plasmid

Contains multiple genes that give the plasmid holder resistance to a series of different kinds of antibiotics and even some heavy metals; very important to the medical profession

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Hfr (High Frequency Recombination)

Plasmids can occasionally be incorporated into the bacterial chromosome; whole bacterial chromosomes can be transferred but it takes a very long time

27

Common Features of the Three Methods of Gene Transfer

- Only a few genes transferred at once (portions of chromosomes or plasmids)
- Once inside the cell, new genes are incorporated into the bacterial chromosome by the same method: breakage-cleavage
- Incorporation of gene only successful 1% of the time

28

Breakage-Cleavage

Method in which new genes are incorporated into a bacterial chromosome:
- Corresponding homologous genes are paired together (side by side)
- An enzyme (deoxyribonuclease) will remove the "old" gene
- Another enzyme (DNA ligase) will join the "new" gene to the recipient's chromosome
- Recipient gene is destroyed by enzymes