Flashcards in Chapter 8 Correlation Deck (24):

1

## Strength Magnitude

### A characteristic of a correlation with a focus on how strongly 2 variables are related.

2

## Causation

### The concept that variations in one variable CAUSES variation in another variable

3

## Correlation Coefficient

### A statistic that reveals the strength and direction of the relationship b/w 2 variables

4

## Coefficient of Determination

### A stat found by squaring the Pearson Correlation Coefficient that reveals the % of variance explained in each of the 2 correlated variables by the other variable

5

## Shared Variance

### The concept of 2 variables overlapping such that some of the variance in each variable is shared. The stronger the correlation b/w the 2 variables the greater the amt. of shared variance b/w them.

6

## Scattergram / Scatterplot

### A graphical depiction of each member of a distribution score on 2 variables simultaneously

7

## Positive Correlation

###
A characteristic of a correlation when the scores on the 2 correlated variables move in the same direction, on average.

As the scores of one variable rise, scores on the other variable rise and vice versa.

8

## Perfect Positive Correlation

###
A correlation coefficient of r = +1.0 occurs when increases in scores of a given size on one of the variables in a correlation are associated with increased scores of a related size on a second variable in the correlation.

(e.g. for each 1 - unit increased in the score on a variable X there is a corresponding 2 - unit increase in the scores on variable Y)

9

## Perfect Negative Correlation

###
A correlation Coefficient of r = - 1.0 occurs when the increasing scores of a given size on one of the variables in a correlation are associated with decreasing scores of related size on a second variable in the correlation.

(i.e. for each 1 - unit increase in the score on variable X there is a corresponding 2 - unit DECREASE in scores on Y variable.

10

## Pearson Product - Moment Correlation Coefficient

### A statistic indicating the strength and direction of the relation b/w 2 continuous variables.

11

## Negative Correlation

### A descriptive feature of a correlation indicating that as scores on one of the correlated variables increase scores on the other variable decrease and vice versa

12

## Dichotomous Variable

### A categorical, or nominal variable with 2 categories.

13

## Direction

### A characteristic of a correlation that describes whether 2 variables are positively or negatively related to each other.

14

## Explained Variance

### The % of variance in one variable that we can account for, or understand, by knowing that value of the 2 variables in the correlation.

15

## Cross Products

### The product of multiplying each individual scores on 2 variables

16

## Curvilinear

### A relationship b/w 2 variables that is positive at some values but negative at other values.

17

## Covariance

### The average of the cross products of a distribution.

18

## Truncated Range

### When the response of a variable are clustered near the top or bottom of the possible range of scores, thereby limiting the range of scores and possibly limiting the strength of the correlation.

19

## Z Score

### Standard Score

20

## r

### The Sample Pearson Correlation Coefficient

21

## p

### Rho, the population correlation coefficient

22

## Sr

### The standard error of the correlation coefficient

23

## r2

### The Coefficient of Determination

24