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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Environmental Health And Toxicology Deck (31)
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What is meant by the term disease?

Diet and nutrition, infectious agents, toxic substances, genetics trauma, and stress all play roles in morbidity (illness) and mortality (death).


What is health ?

A state of physical and emotional well-being; the absence of disease or ailment.


What is disease?

A deleterious change in the bodies condition in response to destabilizing factors, such as nutrition, chemicals, or biological agents.


What is morbidly?

Illness or disease.


What is mortality?

Death rate in a population, such as number of deaths per thousand people per year.


What is environmental health?

The science of external factors that cause disease, including elements of the national, social, cultural, and technological worlds in which we live.


What is conservation medicine?

Attempts to understand how changes we make in our environment threaten our health as well as that of natural communities on which we depend.


What is neurotoxin?

Toxic substances, such as lead or mercury, that specifically poison nerve cells.


What is toxicology?

The study of the adverse affects of external factors on an organism or a system.


What is mutagen?

Agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells.


What is carcinogen?

Substances that cause cancer.


What is teratogen?

Chemicals or other factors that specifically cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and development.


What is toxic?

Substances often harmful in extremely dilute concentrations.


What is hazardous?

Larger category, includes toxic along with corrosive, ignitable, dangerous.


What is synergy?

When an injury caused by exposure to two environmental factors together is greater than the sum of exposure to each factor individually.


Name the five leading causes of global disease burden expected by 2020.

Heart disease, depression, traffic accidents, stroke, and chronic lung disease.


What is emergent diseases?

A new disease or one that has been absent for at least 20 years.

Ex: chronic kidney disease, chikungunya fever, Marburg fever.


Why have these diseases emerged recently in 20 years

With increased international travel, diseases can spread around the globe in a few days.


What is endocrine hormone disrupters?

Chemicals that interfere with the function of endocrine hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, thyroxine, adrenaline, or cortisone.


What is bioaccumuation

The selective absorption and concentration of molecules by cells.


What is biomagnification?

Increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals (for example, heavy metals or fat soluble pesticides) in successively higher trophic levels of a food chain or web.


What is acute toxicity?

A sudden onset of symptoms or effects of exposure to some factor.


What is chronic toxicity?

Long-lasting results of exposure to a toxin; can be a permanent change caused by a single, acute exposure or a continuous, low- level exposure.


What is risk assessment?

Evaluation of the short-term and long-term risks associated with a particular activity or hazard; usually compared with benefits in a cost-benefit analysis.


How is risk determined?

Risk is determined by the probability of harm multiplied by the probability of exposure.


What is meant by the term health?

We all are ill to some extent. Likewise, we all can improve our health to live happier, longer, more productive, and more satisfying lives if we think about what we do.


What are important industrial uses of mercury and what is the major source of mercury?

The largest source of mercury in the United States is from burning coal.


What common foods contain mercury?

Common food that contains mercury is fish.


Why is bisphenol A an environmental health concern?

Because of the rats used for toxicology studies.


What is synergistic effects?

The combination of several processes or factors is greater than the sum of their individual effects.

Ex: occupational asbesto exposure increase lung cancer rates 20-fold.