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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Water Deck (21)
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1

Describe the path a molecule of water might follow through the hydrologic cycle from the ocean to land, through organisms and back again.

-water evaporates from moist surfaces
-falls as rain, snow, sleet, fog
-passes through living organisms
-returns to the ocean via soil and water
-evaporates or is transpired to atmosphere

2

Water is purified during which stage of the hydrologic cycle?

When the water passes through living organisms

3

Know the four major water compartments and the approximate percentage of earths water in each compartment. How does residence time relate to pollution?

-glaciers, ice, and snow. 87%
-groundwater. 12%
-rivers, lakes and wetlands. 0.8%
-the atmosphere. 0.001%

Because residence time evaporates water into the air.

4

How many years does an average water molecule reside in earths ocean water compartment?

3,000 years

5

How long does a water molecule reside in the earths atmosphere water compartment?

1 week

6

About what percent of the water on earth is liquid, fresh, surface water that supports most terrestrial life?

Ocean water 97%
Fresh water 2.4-2.5%
Liquid surface water 1%

7

What is aquifer?

Porous, water-bearing layers of sand, gravel, and rock below the earths surface; reservoirs for groundwater.

8

How does water get into an aquifer?

Recharge zones

9

In Solano county, according lecture (ppt) what price do residential consumers pay for 1(or 5) gallons of clean, treated water from the tap?

5 gallons: 1 penny

10

Water use can be categorized by sector: agricultural, domestic and industrial. Which sector consumes the most globally?

Agricultural at 70%

11

What is point source?

Are municipal and industrial wastewater coming from a district point such as a sewer outfall.

12

What is non point source?

This type of water pollution is a diverse and comes from everyday land use activities such as agriculture, residential development, construction, forestry and more.

13

Which is harder to control, point or non point pollution. Why?

Non point is the hardest to control because it is hard to find the location.

14

Why can nutrients be considered pollutants?

Nutrients stimulate plant growth, over time ponds and lakes often fill in, becoming marshes or even terrestrial biomes.

15

What is biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

A standard test for measuring the amount of dissolved oxygen utilized by aquatic microorganisms.

16

What is primary water treatment?

A process that removes solids from sewage before it is discharged or treated further.

17

What is secondary water treatment?

Bacterial decomposition of suspended particulates and dissolved organic compounds that remain after primary sewage treatment.

18

What is tertiary water treatment?

The removal of inorganic minerals and plant nutrients after primary and secondary treatment of sewage.

19

What is the goal of the clean water act of 1985?

Sets as a national goal the attainment of fishable and swimmable quality for all surface waters in U.S.

20

Identify 3 easy non-heroic actions you can take at home to reduce water consumption.

-spend less time in showers or baths
-use lawn and garden water carefully
-use water conserving appliances

21

Name three benefits of water to life on earth.

Water regulates body temperature, supports structures, and removes waste products.