Flashcards in Chapter 8 Final Deck (21):
The noncorporeal, spiritual component of an individual.
A situation in which a soul passes from one body to another – human animal, or even an inanimate object
A place for souls who die with lesser faults for which there is no repentance or for which the penalty is not wholly paid during the lifetime.
A belief in an immortal, eternal soul that is born again and again in different bodies.
The effect of a person’s behavior during the series of phases of a person’s existence. Karma is seen as determining the person’s destiny.
The veneration of ancestors, who may bring aid to their descendants or, if
neglected, may bring misfortune
A soul of an individual after death that remains in the vicinity of the community
A person who has died before his or her time and who brings about the death of friends and relatives until his or her corpse is “killed.”
A corpse that has been raised from the grave and animated
A specialist in the analysis of the human skeleton in a legal context.
An object of religious veneration, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of a religiously important person, such as an ancestor or saint.
• Measure of the strength of beliefs and practices
o How religious are you?
o How are you religious?
• How does one become religious?
o And disengagement
• The internalization of the values of a social group
o Also the ability to perform the roles that need to be played throughout life → lifelong process, but most of it occurs early
• In terms of religious socialization – it is the terms of getting this form of socialization in the views of religious beliefs
Ages and Stages of ‘being religious’
• Marriage and procreation
• Middle age (rituals?)
• Old age, dying
o → consider the sequence of rites of passage that might mark the stages of an individual’s biography
Childhood : 2 societies - • Learning
. homogenous societies (small scale, or historic)
usually two-gendered, and you do not think about what is about to happen, you just become (i.e. you just become a man)
• → religion pervades in all roles of these types of societies
• 2. Societies that are pluralistic – have different world views
if you are growing up with an awareness of other world views and differences between your group and another group means that you develop a “we” and “they”
Individuals identity and social location are intentionally nurtured by the social group so that the individual has an answer to the question “who am I?”
• Kinship ties
• Relationship between human community and concepts of the divine
• Clan, tribe, ethnic group, nation
• Tensions between group and society
o Weakened norms
o Ritual expression (rites of passage)
o Sexuality and procreation
o For women in traditional cultures, often the route to adult status (sometimes requires the birth of a son for full ‘adult’/wife status)
• Middle Age
o More or less modern phenomenon
o Indeterminate length, characterized by new forms of rituals (anniversaries, retirement parties) but not necessarily religious ones
• Old age
o Elderly respected in traditional communities
• Religion traditionally gives meaning and dignity to old age
• In modern communities, may be separated from family and community
• Aware of immanence of death
There is a difference between actual death and social death (we will go over this later)
• (Rapid) resocialization
• the transformation of one’s self concurrent with a transformation of one’s meaning system
• (not “switching”)
• systematic interpretations of conversion
• age –most common age for conversion is in adolescence
• 14-15 for young women, 16-17 for young men
• moments of crisis in people’s lives (deaths in the family, being fired, mid-life…_
• (liminality – where the person’s identity is in flux)
• sudden change?
• Assimilation (rite of passage)
John R. Lofland’s stages
• Picking up
o A little conversation …
o Bringing the recruit back to the group’s space (a home, for example)
o Getting the person involved to the point that there’s nothing else – ‘weekend retreats’, sleep-dep, lots of activity, lots of food, drink….
o Unconditional love offered from the outset
o Because the conditions have been created (no outside contact, nobody to disrupt the socialization process)
• Dimensions of religiosity (strength of religious beliefs and practice)
o Belief, strength of
o Practice, what people do and how often they do it (go to temple, do the rituals, prayers … )
o Knowledge, how well do you know the religious text, for example
o Consequences, as in consequences for not doing the religion properly?