Difference in the behaviours between a manager and a leader
Manager: Implement, organize, schedule, supervise
Leader: Inspire, motivate, coach, create, set a vision
Difference between a manager and a leader (Chart)
3 general types of leadership theories under Leadership as Supervision
1. Trait theories: Leaders have a particular types of traits that makes them different from nonleaders (Leaders are born)
2. Behavioural Theories: Particular behaviours differentiate leaders from nonleaders (Leaders can be trained)
3. Contingency Theories: Leadership effectiveness is dependent on situations
Describe Trait Theory
- Leaders usually possess the following traits: Extraversion (like being around people and able to assert themselves), open to new experiences (creative and flexible), conscientiousness (disciplined and keep commitments they make) and emotional intelligence (Empathetic)
- Predicts only leadership potential or emergence not effectiveness
- Leaders are born
Ohio State Studies
Two dimensions that significantly accounts for most of the leadership behaviours:
1. Initating Structure: The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of employees to attain goals e.g. assign group tasks, expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance, emphasizes the meaning of deadlines
2. Consideration: The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas and regard for their feelings e.g. help employees with personal problems, friendly and approachable, treat all employees as equals, express appreciation and support
The Michigan Studies
1. Employee-oriented leaders: emphasizes interpersonal relations by taking a personal interest in employees' needs and accepting individual differences
2. Production-oriented leaders: Emphaizes the technical or tasks aspects of the job and focus on accomplishing the group's task
What are the 4 contingency theories? What do they focus on?
1. Fiedler Contingency Model
2. Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership
3. Path-goal theory
4. Substitutes for leadership
They focus on the relationship of the leader to followers and that relationship is important
Fiedler Contingency Model
- Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control
- assumes individual's leadership style is fixed
- if a situation requires a task-oriented leader but the leader is relationship-oriented, he or she must be replaced or the situation has to be changed
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership
Effective leaders should adapt their leadership styles according to the 'readiness' of the followers, i.e. how willing and able they are to perform tasks
If the followers are unable and unwilling to do a task
Telling: Give clear and specific directions
If the followers are unable and willing to do a task
Selling: Display high-task orientation to get the task done and high relationship-orientation to 'sell' the leader's desires
If the followers are able and unwilling to do a task
Participating: use a supportive and participative style
If the followers are able and willing
What is Path-Goal Theory?
It's the leader's job to assist followers in attaining their goals by provide the necessary direction, support and resources and make sure their goals are compatible with the overall goals of the organization
3 guidelines that the Goal-Path Leadership theory suggest for effective leadership
1. Determine the outcomes subordinates want e.g. good pay, job security, interesting work, autonomy
2. Reward individuals with their desired outcomes when they perform well
3. Let individuals know what they need to do to receive rewards (i.e. path to the goal), remove barriers and express confidence that they can perform well
Path-goal Leadership style (1)
Directive: Let followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, gives specific guidance as to how to acomplish the task; best used for less-skilled and motivated workers
Path-goal leadership Style (2)
Supportive: Friendly and shows concerns for the needs of followers; effective when individuals are under stress and need support
Path-goal leadership style (3)
Participative: involve employees in decision-making to make them feel empowered and motivated; effective on skilled and motivated workers
Path-goal leadership style (4)
Achievement-oriented: Sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level (Self-actualization); works well with highly-skilled and motivated workers who love challenging themselves
What are the individual substitutes for leadership?
Experience/training (for task-oriented), professionalism (for task and relationship-oriented), indifference to rewards (neutralizes task and relationship-oriented)
What are the job substitutes for leadership?
Highly structured task (for task), Provides its own feedback (for task), Intrinsically satisfying (for relationship)
What are the organizational substitues for leadership?
Explicit formalized goals (for task), rigid rules and procedures (for task), cohesive work groups (for task and relationship)
Describe an Inspirational leader
Leader as a communicator who inspire others to act beyond their immediate self-interests.
4 characteristics of charismatic leaders
1. Vision and articulation: has a vision that proposes a future better than the status quo; able to clarify the importance of the vision in terms that are understandable to others
2. Personal risk: willing to take on high personal risks, incur high costs and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve the vision
3. Sensitivity to follwers' needs: Perceptive of others' abilities and responsive to their needs and feelings
4. Unconventional behaviour: Engages in behaviors that are perceived as novel and counter to norms
What is charismatic leadership theory?
Followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities to certain behaviours they observe in leaders
How do charismatic leaders influence followers?
1. Leader articulates an appealing vision, a long-term strategy for how to attain a goal by linking the present with a better future for the organization
2. Vision statement: a formal articulation of an organization's vision or mission; leader communicates high performance expectations and express confidence that followers can attain them
3. Leader conveys a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate; sets a tone of cooperation and mutual support
4. leader engages in emotion-inducing and unconventional behaviour to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision
Research shows impressive correlation between charismatic leadership and ____________ among followers
high performance and satisfaction
Charisma appears to be most succesful when the follower's task has an _________ component or when the environment involves _______________.
ideological, a high degree of stress or uncertainty
What kind of personalities are more susceptible to charismatic leadership?
People who lack self-esteem or questions his or her self-worth
What are the dark sides of Charismatic leadership?
1. The need for a charismatic leader decreases when the crisis is over and the need for dramatic change subsides
2. The leader's overwhelming self-confidence can be a liability. He or she may be unable to listen to others, becomes uncomfortable when challenged by aggressive employees and begins to hold an unjustifiable belief in his or her 'rightness' in issues.
3. It silences criticism.
Who are the Level 5 leaders?
Leaders who are fiercely ambitious and driven, but their ambition is directed toward their company rather than themselves. They take responsibility for mistakes and poor results but give credits for success to people. They possess 4 basic leadership quality: individual capability, team skills, managerial competence, the ability to stimulate others to high performance plus the fifth quality: a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will (they channel their ego needs away from themselves into the goal of building a great company)
What are Transactional Leaders?
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
What are Transformational Leaders?
Leaders who inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the organization and have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.
4 characteristics of Transactional Leaders
1. Contingent reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for efforts, promises rewards for good performance, recognises accomplishments
2. Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action
3. Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met
4. Laissez-faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions
4 characteristics of Transformational Leaders
1. Idealized influence: provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respects and trust
2. Inspirational motivation: communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways
3. Intellectual stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving
4. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches and advises
What does transformational leadership work best on?
Smaller, privately held firms; teams higher in power distance and collectivism
What are the 4 contemporary (and distributed) leadership styles?
3. Team leadership
4. Online leadership
What is mentoring?
A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less experienced employee.
How is coaching different from mentoring?
Mentoring involves a longer term relationship in which there is an emotional attachment between mentor and protege; coaching is more task-oriented and short-term.
What are the characteristics of a good coach?
1. emphasizes self-development and self-discovery
2. offers constructive feedback on how to improve
3. meets regularly
4. is a good listener
5. challenge the person being coached to perform
6. sets realistic standards for the person being coached to achieve
How do leaders create self-leaders?
1. Model self-leadership
2. Encourage employees to create self-set goals
3. Encourage the use of self-rewards to strengthen and increase desirable behaviours
4. Create positive thought patterns to stimulate self-motivation
5. Create a climate of self-leadership: redesign the work to increase natural rewards of a job
6. Encourage constructive self-criticism
What does self-leadership assume?
People are responsible, capable, able to exercise initiative without the external constraints of bosses, rules and regulations
What are the roles of team leaders?
1. Liaisons with outsiders e.g. upper management, other internal teams, customers and suppliers
2. Troubleshooters: Not relating to technical or operational issues; ask penetrating questions, get needed resource from external constituencies
3. Conflict managers
4. Coaches: clarify expectations, offer support
What is "Identification-based trust"?
Trust based on a mutual understanding of each other's intentions and appreciation of each other's wants and desires
What is "Leading without authority"?
Exhibiting leadership behaviour even though you do not have a formal position or title
3 benefits of leading without authority
1. Latitude for creative deviance: easier to raise harder questions and look for less traditional solutions
2. Issue focus: focus on only a single issue rather than the many routine issues an authority does
3. Front-line information: An individual is closer to the detailed experiences of some of the stakeholders and so more information is available
Who are the "Authentic Leaders"?
Leaders who know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on these values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers would consider them to be ethical people.
What is the primary quality produced by authentic leadership?
What is "Socialized Charismatic Leadership"?
Leadership that conveys other-centred (not self-centred) values by leaders who model ethnical conduct; leaders are able to bring employee values in line with their own values through their words and actions
4 cornerstones to a moral foundation of leadership
1. Truth telling
2. Promise keeping
4. Respect for the individual
Women prefer __________ leadership style while men prefer _________ style.