Chapter 8: Sprain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Sprain Deck (30):
1

An overstretch injury to a ligament is called:

Sprains

2

Composed of flexible, non contractile connective tissue. Occur in bands around a synovial joint, blending into the periosteum and joining bones together. This is called:

Ligaments

3

What are the causes of sprain?

Trauma - related sudden twist or wrench of the joint beyond its normal range of motion.

4

What are the contributing factors of Sprain?

  • Congenital ligamentous laxity ( hypermobility )
  • History of previous sprains
  • Altered biomechanics ( rheumatoid arthritis )

5

Sprain is classified into three level of severity. includes:

Grade 1, mild or First degree

Grade 2, moderate or second degree

Grade 3, severe or Third degree

6

Level of severity where there is a minor stretch and tear to the ligament.

Mild or First degree

7

Level of severity where there is tearing of the ligament fibres occurs.

Moderate or Second degree

8

Level of severity where there either a complete rupture of the ligament itself.

Severe or Third degree

9

True or False:

Pain is present in acute stage, while a chronic sprain may be painlessly hypermobile in the direction the ligament is intended to check.

True

10

Condition that occur when the injury is severe enough to inflame the synovium, increasing the production of synovial fluid and causing the joint capsule to swell.

Joint Effusion

11

What are the  3 types of cartilage in the human body?

a) Hyaline

b) Fibrocartilage

c) Elastic cartilage

12

True or False:

Cartilage is essentially avascular and aneural; therefore has a slow and difficult repair.

True

13

It is the second most commonly sprained lateral ankle ligament, often injured in conjunction with the anterior talofibular ligament.

Calcaneofibular ligament

14

A condition decribes when a joint is positioned beyond its normal range, injuring (tearing) the ligaments and often the joint capsule. 

Sprain

15

What are the Percentage of fibres torn in first and second degree?

First degree: 0-20% Second degree: 20-75%

16

What is the degree when there is 75% to complete tear of fibres that may take months to heal?

Third degree

17

Third degree with total rupture ligaments is known as:

Dislocation

18

Duration of healing in second degree sprain.

14-30 days

19

Most common site of second degree sprain.

ankle/wrist

20

Duration of healing in first degree sprain.

5-14 days

21

What are the causes of sprain?

  • Trauma causing overstretches of a ligament
  • Scar tissue formation in the tissue, predisposes the ligament to tearing, thus previous injury is also a cause
  • Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis

22

What are the signs and symptoms of acute sprain?

  • pain
  • local edema 
  • inflammation
  • heat
  • bruising
  • Decrease Range of motion

23

What are the signs and symptoms of subacute sprain?

  • Adhesions
  • bruising
  • pain
  • edema
  • inflammation
  • reduce range of motion
  • loss of proprioception at the joint

24

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic sprain?

  • pain
  • matured adhesions
  • hypertonicity and trigger points
  • edema
  • loss of proprioception at the joint
  • restricted range of motion of joints
  • muscle weakness

25

What are the aims of treatment for acute and sub acute sprain?

  • Decrease inflammation
  • Decrease spasm and pain
  • Maintain Range of motion

26

What are the aims of treatment for chronic sprain?

  • Prevent fibrosis, because fibrosis leads to re-injury
  • Restore full range of motion (note surgery)

27

What are the test used to identify sprain?

  • Passive Range of Motion for ligaments
  • Active Resisted ROM in chronic (isometric)
  • Active Free ROM (pain free)

28

What are the treatment of acute sprain?

  • Drainage on the affected limb
  • Diaphragmatic breathing efflurage and slow petrissage mid- range passive relax range of motion

29

What are the treatment of subacute sprain?

  • Diaphragmatic breathing
  • Hydrotherapy proximal
  • lymphatic drainage
  • efflurage
  • trigger points

30

What are the treatment of chronic sprain?

  • Massage
  • contrast hydrotherapy
  • efflurage and repetetive petrissage
  • joint play technique
  • passive relax range of motion