Chapter 8 - Sustainability ( Final ) Flashcards Preview

COMM 2310 - Ethics > Chapter 8 - Sustainability ( Final ) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Sustainability ( Final ) Deck (15):

3 ways to bring earths carrying capacity back into balance

1. technology innovation
2. changing consumption habits
3. getting the prices right


technology innovation

develop new tech. to produce energy, food, and other necessities more efficiently and with less waste



advocacy of the preservation or improvement of the economic, and social well being of all people, and the natural environment



an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by private investment, and prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by a competition in a free market


Conventional capitalism

1. economic progress is best served in a free-market systems
2. profitability is linked to operational efficiencies and expanding markets.
3. growth in GDP maximizes well-being
4. free enterprises and market forces will direct people and resources to their best use
5. critics = 19th and 20th century, labour overworked and scare while natural capital was abundant and unexploited- today opposite occurs


environmental crisis: Market Solution

- businesses have an obligation to obey the law and avoid negligence however they do now have to avoid harm.
- citizens determine environmental laws and businesses cannot be opposed to consumer demand


environmental crisis : Market solution
- first caveat

- businesses should not expose enviro legislation or or regulation


environmental crisis : Market solution
- second caveat

businesses have a special obligation to educate consumers about environmentally friendly choices


Objection to market solution for an environmental crisis

- " citizens determine environmental laws and businesses cannot deny consumer demands"

OBJECTION - nations where TNCs conduct business lack democratic input. The preferences of non-US citizens are not taken into account


Roles of Consumers

- consumers lack an accurate understanding of the causes of GHG and their preferences are easily influences


consumer choices

- businesses don't always satisfy consumer choices
- consumers are limited with their choices
- no laboratory experiments


Objections to the market solution (part 2)

harm to others
- US consumers use a disproportionate amount of atmospheric recourses, therefore non-US consumers receive excess amounts of harm - not proportionate to the levels of atmospheric resources they use

responsibility to the past
- it is not fair to make someone pay for the costs of benefits someone has not given consent to
- transportation and electricity sector should be held accountable for their for their GHG up-to-date
- history does matter - how did we get here


The regulatory solution - Paris

the Paris Climate change agreement
- UNFCCC: United nations framework convention on Climate change
- hold the global avg. temp 2 degrees celcius above the industrial revolutionary levels
- adapts to the adverse impacts of climate change in a manner that does not threaten food productions
- financial flows consistent with objectives
- nationally contributes contributions
- name and shame
- US and Nicaragua didn't sign the Paris agreement


hybrid solution: creative capitalism

1. Bills gates
- " the world is getting better"
- the status of woman and minority improve
- life expectancy doubles
- governance, political and economic freedom
2. Make self - interest serve the wider interest
- gov: market incentives , including profits and recognition to do more for the poor
- offer valuable goods to the poor
- help businesses in poor worlds reach businesses in rich markets ( free trade vs fait trade)
- DEDICATE a % of top innovators time to issues affecting the bottom of the pyramid


arguments of the regulatory solution (paris agreement)

- (developing countries) shouldnt be punished for a problem they didnt create nor denied the opp. for clean growth (- justin trudeau
- liberals are misleading canadians saying everything is a win-win - fighting climate change is a big issues and Canadians have ti discuss who pays for it (- ed fast)
- can others in the world live better if consumption in the west continues to grow ?