Chapter 8 - Sustainability ( Final ) Flashcards Preview

COMM 2310 - Ethics > Chapter 8 - Sustainability ( Final ) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Sustainability ( Final ) Deck (15):
1

3 ways to bring earths carrying capacity back into balance

1. technology innovation
2. changing consumption habits
3. getting the prices right

2

technology innovation

develop new tech. to produce energy, food, and other necessities more efficiently and with less waste

3

sustainability

advocacy of the preservation or improvement of the economic, and social well being of all people, and the natural environment

4

capitalism

an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by private investment, and prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by a competition in a free market

5

Conventional capitalism

1. economic progress is best served in a free-market systems
2. profitability is linked to operational efficiencies and expanding markets.
3. growth in GDP maximizes well-being
4. free enterprises and market forces will direct people and resources to their best use
5. critics = 19th and 20th century, labour overworked and scare while natural capital was abundant and unexploited- today opposite occurs

6

environmental crisis: Market Solution

- businesses have an obligation to obey the law and avoid negligence however they do now have to avoid harm.
- citizens determine environmental laws and businesses cannot be opposed to consumer demand

7

environmental crisis : Market solution
- first caveat

- businesses should not expose enviro legislation or or regulation

8

environmental crisis : Market solution
- second caveat

businesses have a special obligation to educate consumers about environmentally friendly choices

9

Objection to market solution for an environmental crisis

- " citizens determine environmental laws and businesses cannot deny consumer demands"

OBJECTION - nations where TNCs conduct business lack democratic input. The preferences of non-US citizens are not taken into account

10

Roles of Consumers

- consumers lack an accurate understanding of the causes of GHG and their preferences are easily influences

11

consumer choices

- businesses don't always satisfy consumer choices
- consumers are limited with their choices
- no laboratory experiments

12

Objections to the market solution (part 2)

harm to others
- US consumers use a disproportionate amount of atmospheric recourses, therefore non-US consumers receive excess amounts of harm - not proportionate to the levels of atmospheric resources they use

responsibility to the past
- it is not fair to make someone pay for the costs of benefits someone has not given consent to
- transportation and electricity sector should be held accountable for their for their GHG up-to-date
- history does matter - how did we get here

13

The regulatory solution - Paris

the Paris Climate change agreement
- UNFCCC: United nations framework convention on Climate change
requirements
- hold the global avg. temp 2 degrees celcius above the industrial revolutionary levels
- adapts to the adverse impacts of climate change in a manner that does not threaten food productions
- financial flows consistent with objectives
- nationally contributes contributions
- name and shame
- US and Nicaragua didn't sign the Paris agreement

14

hybrid solution: creative capitalism

1. Bills gates
- " the world is getting better"
- the status of woman and minority improve
- life expectancy doubles
- governance, political and economic freedom
2. Make self - interest serve the wider interest
- gov: market incentives , including profits and recognition to do more for the poor
- offer valuable goods to the poor
- help businesses in poor worlds reach businesses in rich markets ( free trade vs fait trade)
- DEDICATE a % of top innovators time to issues affecting the bottom of the pyramid

15

arguments of the regulatory solution (paris agreement)

- (developing countries) shouldnt be punished for a problem they didnt create nor denied the opp. for clean growth (- justin trudeau
- liberals are misleading canadians saying everything is a win-win - fighting climate change is a big issues and Canadians have ti discuss who pays for it (- ed fast)
- can others in the world live better if consumption in the west continues to grow ?