Chapter 8 word list Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 word list Deck (39):
1

-the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
-is an emergent property of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the cell

Metabolism

2

release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds

catabolic pathways

3

consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones

Anabolic pathways

4

the capacity to cause change

energy

5

potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction

chemical potential energy

6

energy of the universe is constant
-energy can be transferred and transformed
-energy cannot be created or destroyed
also called the principle of conservation of energy

First Law of Thermodynamics

7

-During every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is unusable, often lost as heat
-every single transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe

Second Law of thermodynamics

8

energy that can do work when temperature and pressure are uniform, as in a living cell

Free energy

9

-free energy decreases and the stability of a system increases
-only processes with a negative g are ____
-the system must either give up enthalpy (h must decrease), give up order (Ts must increase) or both

spontaneous

10

proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous

exergonic reaction

11

absorbs free energy from its surroundings and is non spontaneous

Endergonic reaction

12

renewable resource that is regenerated by addition of a phosphate group to ADP

ATP

13

a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

Catalyst

14

a catalytic protein

enzyme

15

the initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called

activation energy

16

the reactant that an enzyme acts on is called its

substrate

17

the enzyme binds to its substrate, forming an

enzyme substrate complex

18

the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds

active site

19

______ of a substrate brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance the ability to catalyze the reaction

Induced fit

20

non protein enzyme helpers
(look at examples on notes)

cofactors

21

organic cofactors

coenzymes

22

bind to the active site of an enzyme, competing with the substrate

Competitive inhibitor

23

bind to another part of an enzyme, causing the enzyme to change shape and making the active site less effective

Noncompetive inhibitor

24

-the term used to describe cases where a protein's function at one site is affected by binding of a regulatory molecule at another site
-may either inhibit or stimulate an enzymes activity

allosteric regulation

25

The formation of an end product inhibits in earlier reaction in the sequence

feedback inhibition

26

kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules

heat (thermal energy)

27

energy associated with motion

kinetic energy

28

energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure

potential energy

29

begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme

metabolic pathway

30

occur without energy input, they can happen quickly or slowly

spontaneous processes

31

disorder

entropy

32



Energy stored in chemical bonds is released or taken up in chemical reactions

enthalpy

33

symbolizes the change in the systems enthalpy

H

34

change in the systems entropy

S

35

absolute temperature in Kelvin (K) units

T

36

beating of cilia, the contraction of muscle cells, the movement of chromosomes during cellular reproduction

mechanical work

37

the pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement

transport work

38

the pushing of endergonic reactions, which would not occur spontaneously, such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers

chemical work

39

the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one

energy coupling