Chapter 8.3 Flashcards Preview

Chapter 8 > Chapter 8.3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8.3 Deck (10):

5% Mark-up Policy

It is a guide, not a rule. The percentage markup is only one factor in the determination of the fairness of mark-ups. The determination is based on the consideration of all the relevant factors.


5% Mark-up Policy applies to what kind of trades?

All OTC principal and/or agency trades


Relevant factors which justify a higher percentage mark-up include:

-Type of security
-Availability of the security in the market
-Price of the securities
-Amount of money in the transaction
-Disclosure - If a FINRA member informs a customer in advance that the mark-up on a particular transaction is going to be high, such disclosure will be looked upon favorably by the regulator but will not, by itself, justify the high mark-up.
-Patterns of mark-ups: Each mark-up by itself must be fair but FINRA will give attention to the general pattern of mark-ups charged by the firm.
-Nature of member's business

**Excessive expenses of the B/D or market volatility are NOT a justification for a higher mark-up.


The Mark-up is determined by what?

The current market value of a security


Transactions to which the Mark-up policy applies:

-A transaction in which a member buys a security to fill an order for the same security, which was received from a customer. This is called a "Riskless and simultaneous" transaction.
-A transaction in which the member sells a security to a customer from its own inventory.
-A transaction in which a member purchases a security from a customer and puts it into its own inventory.
-A transaction in which the member acts as an agent by bringing a buyer and seller together and charges a commission. The commission must be fair and reasonable.
-Government Securities transactions


The Mark-up Policy does not apply to:

-Securities which are listed and traded on the floor of a stock exchange
-Securities where a prospectus or offering circular must be delivered and the securities are sold at a specific public offering price. This includes new issues, a registered secondary distribution, and open-end investment companies' shares.
-Regulation "A" offerings.


Agency transactions

Trading on Exchanges.

Capacity: Agent acting as a broker and charging a commission


Principal Transactions

Trading Over the Counter

Capacity: Principal Transactions acting as a dealer


Riskless principal or net transactions

Where a member that is not a market maker in the security receives a customer's order to buy, and then purchases the security as principal from another member to satisfy the order to buy, OR after receiving a customer's order to sell, sells the security as principal to another member or customer to satisfy the sell.


Riskless principal or net transactions rules

-The trade will be reported as one transaction excluding the mark-up or mark-down
-A Riskless principal transaction in which a member purchases or sells the shares on an exchange to satisfy a customer's order will be reported by the exchange and not by the member
-When a non-market maker sells stock to a customer in a Riskless principal trade, the mark-up is determined from the member's cost
-Prior to executing such a transaction, a member must disclose to and obtain consent from the customer on an order by order basis. Customers may not sign a negative consent letter. Institutions may provide the firm with a negative consent letter to avoid order by order consent
-If a mark-up is charged it must be disclosed to the customer