Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (24)
How was the American Revolution a revolution?
Not in the sense of radical or total change
Many were not seriously disturbed by the war
What were some of the things that sent America moving towards equality after the Revolution?
Most states reduced the property requirements to vote
Stimulated by the growth of trade organizations for artisans and laborers
Several states sawed off the inheritance laws
Fight for the seperation of church and state had notable gains
Why did slavery remain in place after the Revolution?
Some gains= 1774 Congress abolishes slave trade, some Northern states completely abolished slavery
No states South of Pennsylvania abolished slavery
Laws still limited those who were freed
Abolition didn't go further because the Founding Fathers sacrificed it to political expediency. A fight over slavery likely would have destroyed the fragile unity in place
What was the position of women after the revolution?
Some had served in the military disguised as men
NJ briefly enabled them to vote
Many were still in traditional women's work
Civic Virtue- idea that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citzen to the public good
Republican Motherhood- set a good example for the future generations
EDUCATION WAS EXPANDED
What was, in general, the Articles of Confederation?
Established for after the revolution by the Continental Congress (2), the Articles of Confederation were made to help loosely unite the sovereign states and allow a weak and hobbled central governing body
Describe the Articles of Confederation
Under this the states were sovereign- all having their own constitutions
Congress is the chief agency of government- legislative
No executive branch
Hobbled Congress- amendments have to be all 13 states and all states get only one vote
What were the two crippling factors of the Articles of C?
They had no power to regulate commerce- states can enact conflicting tariffs and navigational acts- could not enforce tax collection (voluntary quota)
Could not command or control, only offer advice- can't protect itself from threats
What was significant about the A of C in the course of history?
Model of a loose confederation- show they need a federation
Outlined general powers- treaties and postal
Kept the union alive
What were the two good things that occurred under the A of C?
Land Ordinance of 1785- the survey and sale of Western lands that was a=orderly (no scramble)- set up towns for education and democracy
NorthWest Ordinance of 1787- For the process of a territory to become a state- equal footing of the original 13- not making the British mistake of not intending to let the territories grow up- established with no slavery
What were some of the issues that occurred under the A of C?
Foreign relations were troubled
British wouldn't remove trade posts and navigation acts
Congress couldn't control commerce and states refused to adapt a uniform tariff policy
Spain was openly unfriendly- close off the river to the Americans
Spain schemed with indian groups
French demanded repayment
Pirates from North Africa attacked them because they couldn't pay the fee that had once been protected by the British
What was Shays Rebellion?
Debt is heavy and the people who had went off to the war were still taxed on the land while they were gone. They were left in huge debt with threats of foreclosure. Farmers wanted to plead for help, but the government wasn't in session . Instead they stop the courts from meeting, but that is treason. Shays gets involved when his friends in the rebellion are arrested.
Why was Shays Rebellion important?
Made them aware that they weren't stable
Need to strengthen themselves
What was the Annapolis Convention?
Only 5 states showed up- nothing could be done
Hamilton saved it by calling upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year to REVISE the A of C
What was the Philadelphia Convention?
Every state (except Rhode Island) chose representatives appointed by the state legislatures
May 25 1787- 55 emissaries from 12 states
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams were missing (as ambassadors)
Sessions were held in complete secrecy
George Washington as chairmen
James Madison as the Father of the Constitution
A conservative, well-to-do body
What were the motives of the Constitutional (Philadelphia ) Convention?
Preserving and strengthening the young republic, rather than stirring up a popular democracy
Stable political structure needed- genuine power needed
Preserve the union- forestall anarchy
Ensure secuirity of life and property
Curb the unrestrained democracy of some states
What were the delegates supposed to do at the Constitutional convention and what did they really do?
Supposed to REVISE the Articles of Confederation, but scrapped them and started over
What was the Virginia Plan?
James Madison Large State Plan
Pushed for the framework of the constitution
Executive, legislative, and judicial branches included
Legislative branch would be bicameral with population based votes- larger state advantage
What was the New Jersey Plan?
Small state plan for the constitution
Similar to the A of C
Equal representation in a unicameral Congress
What's the Connecticut Compromise?
Virginia and NJ Plan Combined
Bicameral- one equal and one proportional
What constituted as population in the the constitution?
Women and Children were citizens
3/5 Compromise- for tax purposes of the slaves
What are the Federalist Essays?
Madison, John Jay, and Hamilton
51- must control the governed and control itself- checks and balances-executive branch, veto
10-Small republic vs Extended- extended is good because there are more interest groups to check each other1
GO OVER ANTI-FEDERALIST SHEET
How was the constitution conservative?
Demand sound money and protection of private property
Strong central government with checks and balances- 3 branches
Manhood suffrage is feared- only House of Reps was voted directly on by the people