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statistics Test 2 Chp 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 > chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 9 Deck (20)
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1

58. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a good plot, graph, or picture of data?


a. A source must be given for the data.
b. The picture should contain as much information, color, and extra material as possible to keep readers interested.
c. The labels should be clear and informative.
d. All of the above are good characteristics of a good plot, graph, or picture of data.

B

2

59. Which of the following is not true about the plots, graphs, or pictures of data that you come across in the media?


a. Most of these pictures can give you a clear, quick visual summary of that data.
b. One purpose is to convey a message more quickly than if you had to study the data on your own.
c. Very few of the pictures are misleading because they are checked for accuracy and fairness before being presented.
d. None of the above.

C

3

60. Which of the following should be indicated by the labels on a graph?


a. The title or purpose of the picture.
b. What each of the axes, bars, pie segments, etc., denotes.
c. The scale of each axis, including starting points.
d. All of the above.

D

4

65. Which of the following is not a type of picture for organizing categorical data?


a. A pie chart.
b. A bar graph.
c. A pictogram.
d. A histogram.

D

5

68. Which of the following is not possible to include on a bar graph?


a. Frequency in each category for a categorical variable.
b. Information representing two or three categorical variables simultaneously.
c. Proportions that are not required to sum to 100%.
d. All of the above are possible with a bar graph.

D

6

77. Measurement data displayed in terms of how they change over time can not be represented by what type of statistical picture?


a. A line graph.
b. A bar graph.
c. A histogram.
d. All of the above can be used.

C

7

78. What characteristics do statistical pictures of measurement data allow us to examine?


a. Trends or patterns in the data.
b. Variability in the data.
c. The overall shape of the data.
d. All of the above.

D

8

110. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a good plot, graph, or picture of data?


a. Financial data collected over time should be adjusted for inflation.
b. Any breaks between years where data is missing should be closed in and not left as empty spaces.
c. The labels should be clear and informative.
d. All of the above are good characteristics of a good plot, graph, or picture of data.

B

9

111. Which of the following is not true about a plot, graph, or picture of data?


a. Extraneous information should be excluded; the more extra information on a graph, the more confusing it can get.
b. Many graphs are misleading; the public must look at them critically before trying to interpret their results.
c. The scale on a graph doesn’t matter. Measurement data can be displayed using any scale as long as that scale is consistent.
d. All of the above statements are true.

C

10

112. Which of the following would automatically mean a statistical picture is misleading?


a. A histogram where the scale is very large.
b. A pictogram where all money is converted to current U.S. dollar amounts.
c. A line graph where the axes do not start at zero.
d. None of the above.

D

11

89. Which of the following does not describe a time series?


a. A time series is a record of a variable across time.
b. A time series is usually measured at equally spaced time intervals.
c. A time series is a data set on numerous individuals measured in units of time (for example, time until completion of the obstacle course; or time until graduation).
d. All of the above describe a time series

C

12

90. How does a time series plot differ from a histogram?


a. A histogram displays one measurement variable, but a time series plot displays data with two measurement variables (time is one of them).
b. A histogram displays data collected at one point in time, while a time series plot displays data collected over a series of times.
c. If a histogram is flat, that indicates more variability than if it were bell-shaped. If a time series plot is flat, that indicates less variability than if it were bell-shaped.
d. All of the above.

D

13

91. Which of the following does not describe a time series plot with an irregular cycle?


a. It repeatedly goes up and back down smoothly, but with an irregular pattern so as not to be predictable.
b. It randomly fluctuates with no pattern at all.
c. Its irregularity can often be explained by outside factors such as political or social situations.
d. All of the above

B

14

92. Which of the following components of a time series plot is defined as what’s left over when the other three components have been removed?


a. Random fluctuations
b. Seasonal components
c. Irregular cycles
d. Long-term trend

A

15

93. Which of the following describes the result of seasonally adjusting a time series (such as the unemployment rate)?


a. The seasonal extremes have been removed.
b. One time period no longer dominates each year as the high or the low.
c. The variability is reduced.
d. All of the above.

D

16

94. Suppose the President is campaigning for reelection, and says you should vote for him because a downward trend in the unemployment rate has occurred over the last four years. What can you conclude?


a. This trend will likely continue for a long time whether the president is reelected or not.
b. This trend could just be a part of the longer-term, up and down behavior of unemployment rates.
c. This trend was definitely caused by the President and his administration. He should be reelected if you expect it to continue.
d. None of the above.

B

17

101. In what way(s) can a poorly done pie chart be misleading?


a. Changes in labeling on one or more axes.
b. Not starting at zero as a way to exaggerate trends.
c. Using poor information.
d. All of the above

C

18

102. In what way(s) can a poorly done histogram be misleading?


a. Changes in labeling on one or more axes.
b. Not starting at zero as a way to exaggerate trends.
c. Using poor information.
d. All of the above.

D

19

103. Suppose you have data on the number of accidents at a certain intersection for the following years: 1960, 1965, 1975, and 1990. What is the best way to display this information fairly?


a. A bar graph with one bar for each year of data available; the bars are an equal distance apart.
b. A line graph with the years from 1960 through 1990 marked off in equal increments and dots on the line graph representing the number of accidents for the years for which data are available. The dots are connected with lines.
c. A pie chart with a slice for the percentage of accidents occurring in each of the four years for which data is available.
d. Any of the above.

B

20

104. If the scale on the vertical axis is in very large increments with very little space between each one, what does this do to the appearance of the data?


a. It makes differences appear smaller than they really are.
b. It makes differences appear larger than they really are.
c. It does nothing to affect the appearance of the data.
d. It makes the information easier to read and understand

A