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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (49)
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1
Q

Diffusion over large distances IS/IS NOT slow and inefficient because it relies on random movement of molecules and ions

A

diffusion over larger distances IS slower

2
Q

What statements are TRUE as a cell grows in size? - it has difficulty eliminating wastes - it has difficulty obtaining nutrients - its diffusion across the cell membrane is impaired - its surface area to volume ratio increases

A

All of them except that its surface area to volume does not increase

3
Q

During which phase of mitosis does DNA Replication occur

A

interphase

4
Q

Which phase of mitosis is the shortest?

A

metaphase

5
Q

How is the alignment of chromosomes maintained?

A

the tension between opposite spindle fibers

6
Q

What happens in telephase: do the chromosomes condense? or do the chromosomes relax?

A

chromosomes relax in telephase

7
Q

Why is it important that chromosomes condense during the first part of mitosis

A

to facilitate chromosome movement (to make it EASIER for chromosomes to move)

8
Q

Cytokineses in animal cell involves the formation of what?

A

protein belt

9
Q

What part of the cell does Colchicine affect?

A

spindle fibers

10
Q

Cytokinesis forms new cells differently in plant cells vs animal cells. What does cytokinesis form in plant cells?

A

cell plate

11
Q

What is mitosis

A

the division of the nucleus

12
Q

What are the 3 stages of interphase?

A

G1, synthesis, G2

13
Q

What is the longest stage of mitosis?

A

prophase

14
Q

What is the shortest phase of mitosis?

A

metaphase

15
Q

What is cytokinesis?

A

the splitting of the cytoplasm, producing two new daughter cells

16
Q

At what stage of mitosis are two new nuclei formed?

A

telephase

17
Q

During which phase are spindle fibers shortened and chromatids pulled towards the poles?

A

anaphase

18
Q

The cell cycle is divided into what 3 stages?

A

interphase mitosis cytokinesis

19
Q

During prophase, what do the centrioles do?

A

migrate to the poles

20
Q

In what type of cell (plant or animal) does cytokinesis begin with a FURROW that pinches the cell

A

animal cells only

21
Q

What is the structure on a chromosome where the sister chromatids meet?

A

centromere

22
Q

Which of these does NOT happen by the end of PROPHASE? - break down of the nuclear envelope - lining up of the chromosomes in the cell - tighter coiling of the chromosomes - disappearing of the nucleolus

A

lining up of the chromosomes in the cell

23
Q

Is the process of cell division complete after telephase or after cytokinesis?

A

not until after cytokinesis! It is not complete after telophase!

24
Q

Do prokaryotes (like bacteria) divide by mitosis?

A

NO

25
Q

Why is the second stage of interphase called “synthesis”?

A

because DNA synthesis is taking place

26
Q

What is the typical growth period stage of the cell cycle?

A

G1

27
Q

The cell in Fig 9-5 is undergoing mitosis. What stage of mitosis will follow this?

A

metaphase

28
Q

Fig 9-4 illustrates which phase?

A

metaphase

29
Q

What are the two types of stem cells?

A

embryonic stem cells & adult stem cells

30
Q

Do embryonic stem cells come from a blob of cells formed shortly after a human baby is conceived, or do they come from various tissues in the body?

A

from a blob of cells formed shortly after the human body is conceived

31
Q

What do scientists call unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells?

A

stem cells

32
Q

Why does a stem cell have potential medical uses?

A

because it is not formed in form or in function

33
Q

What binds with Cyclin dependent kinases to initiate different stages of mitosis

A

Cyclin

34
Q

Dies Cyclin bind with Cyclin dependent Kinases to initiate different stages of mitosis

A

yes

35
Q

What is the cell cycle regulated by?

A

cyclins

36
Q

What is built into the cell cycle that can stop at any time?

A

check points

37
Q

What is the role of cyclin dependent kinases in the cell cycle?

A

to initiate various stages of the cell cycle

38
Q

Will a cell (like a nerve cell) exit the cell cycle after Gap 2?

A

no, false

39
Q

In fig 9-5, which checkpoint has the cell just passed? Which stage of mitosis will follow this?

A

Gap 2 stage; Metaphase

40
Q

What is cancer caused by?

A

mutations

41
Q

Why can cancer cells rapidly reproduce?

A

They spend less time in interphase

42
Q

According to graph 9-2, which of the cells is likely cancerous? (a, b, c, d) What is a likely explanation for what happened to cells b & d?

A

cell a; Cells b & d died because the cancerous cells deprived them of nutrients

43
Q

What is the result if cells do not respond to the normal mechanisms that control cell division?

A

cancer

44
Q

What is the programmed cell death that some cells go through?

A

apoptosis

45
Q

A cell has 12 chromosomes. How many chromosomes will each daughter cell have?

A

12

46
Q

What stage of mitosis is this?

A

Metaphase

47
Q

What stage of mitosis is this?

A

Telophase

48
Q

What stage of mitosis is this?

A

Prophase

49
Q

What stage of mitosis is this?

A

Anaphase