Flashcards in Chapter 9&10 Deck (32):
A heavy, wheeled plow strong enough to turn over the dense clay soil and allow for drainage
Adding a 3rd field so that farmers could rotate crops without too much of their land going fallow
People in the high Middle Ages learned how to harness the power of water and wind to do jobs formally done by animals.
Permanent residences for the noble family, it's retainers, and servants, and they were defendable fortifications
A code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
A finished piece in their craft that allowed the master craftsmen of the guild to judge whether the journeymen were qualified to become masters and join the guild.
Educational guilds or corporations that produced educated and trained individuals
A degree you got for a Four or six year period of study
The attempt to reconcile faith and reason. What was accepted through faith was in harmony with what could be learned through reason
A style of constructing churches
One of the great artistic triumphs of the high Middle Ages. A symbol for medieval peoples preoccupation with God
Possessed some sources of power that other lords did not. Monarchies were build out of this idea of rule.
Battle of Hastings
His goals were to expand the jurisdiction of royal courts antending the kings power and brought revenues into his coffers
Archbishop of Canterbury and the highest ranking English cleric, claimed that only church courts could try clerics.
Thomas à Becket
Aimed at limiting government practices that affected the relations between he king and his vassals on the one hand and between the king and the church on the other
Meetings of the kings great council
A household staff for running affairs
Previous German kings focus on building a strong German kingdom, to which Italy might be added. Frederick the first to the Italians however plan to get his chief revenues from is Italy as the center of the holy empire
Holy Roman empire
Means universal ruler from that time on gang is con created a powerful military force in devoted himself to fighting
The practice by which secular rulers both chose and invested their nominees to church offices with symbols of their office was dramatically taken up by the greatest of the reform popes of the 11th century Gregory the seventh
And active and powerful pope during the high middle ages. He approve the creation of the Franciscan and Dominican religious orders and inaugurated the fourth Crusade
Pope innocent III
Who became abbess of a covenant at Disiboldenberg in western Germany shared in the religious enthusiasm of the 12th century
Hildegard of bingen
The Franciscan Friars lived among people preaching repentance and aiding the poor
Francis of Assisi
And intellectual and he was appalled by the growth of harry see you within the church he believe that a new religious order of men who lived lives of poverty but we're learned in capable of preaching affectively would be best able to attack heresy
Men and women who through their holiness had achieved a special position in heaven enabling them to act as intercessors before God
The mother of Jesus occupied in the foremost position in the high middle ages. Mary was viewed as most important mediator with his son Jesus and the judge of all sinners
Usually the bones of saints or objects immediately connected to saints that were considered worthy of veneration by the faithful.
One of their stronghold in southern France they believed in a Dualist system in which good and evil where separate and distinct. Things of the spirit were good because they were created by God the source of light; things of the world were evil because they were created by Satan is the prince of darkness
Hostility two or prejudice against Jews