Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration & Fermentation Flashcards Preview

Bio 93: Exam 2 > Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration & Fermentation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration & Fermentation Deck (40)
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1

Cellular respiration takes place in the ___________.

Mitochondria

2

What is reduction?

Gain of electrons
(Has extra H+)

3

What is oxidation?

Loss of electrons

4

List the common enzymes in cellular respiration

1. Kinase
2. Isomerase
3. Dehydrogenase

5

What is the function of a kinase enzyme?

Phosphorylation Reaction:
Transfer of a phosphate group

6

What is the function of an isomerase enzyme?

Isomerization reaction:
Rearrangement of atoms in a molecule

7

What is the function of a dehydrogenase enzyme?

Redox Reactions:
Transfer of hydrogen atoms

8

In cellular respiration, sugar is __________ and oxygen is __________.

Sugar is oxidized
Oxygen is reduced

9

List the 4 steps of Cellular Respiration

1. Glycolysis
2. Pyruvate Oxidation
3. Citric Acid Cycle
4. Oxidative Phosphorylation
a. Electron Transport
b. Chemiosmosis

10

What is glycolysis?

- Breakdown of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
- Occurs in the cytoplasm

11

What is yielded through glycolysis?

2 ATP
2 NADH
2 Pyruvate

12

In glycolysis, what compounds provide phosphate groups for the production of phosphorylated sugars during the energy investment phase?

ATP

13

What is pyruvate oxidation?

Carry pyruvate from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix

14

What happens to pyruvate in pyruvate oxidation?

-Pyruvate is attached to acetyl-coa
- NADH is produced

15

What is yielded through pyruvate oxidation?

- 2 NADH
- 2 CO2

17

What is the waste product of pyruvate oxidation?

CO2

18

Is pyruvate polar or nonpolar?

Polar
- hydroxyl group

19

How many times does pyruvate oxidation occur?

2

20

Is pyruvate broken down in pyruvate oxidation?

No

21

What is yielded through the citric acid cycle?

- 2 ATP
- 6 NADH
- 2 FADH2
- 4 CO2

22

What is the citric acid cycle?

- Breakdown of pyruvate into CO2
- Harvest energy in electron carriers

23

Where does the citric acid cycle occur?

Mitochondrial matrix

24

What is oxidative phosphorylation?

Energy from the electron transport chain forms a H+ electrochemical gradient that drives the ATP production


Uses energy from NADH & FADH2 to produce ATP

25

What are the two steps of oxidative phosphorylation?

1. Electron transport chain
2. Chemiosmosis

26

Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

Inner mitochondrial membrane

27

What does the electron transport chain do?

Electrons are delivered from NADH & FADH2 to carrier proteins

28

Is energy released or required in the electron transport chain?

Released with each e- transfer

29

What is an electrochemical gradient?

When the H+ ions move from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space

30

Why is it bad if the H+ ions are left floating in the intermembrane space?

They will react with other things in our bodies

31

What does the last e- do after it has transferred from protein to protein?

It reacts with oxygen (final electron accepter)