Chapter 9-Executives Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9-Executives Deck (41):
1

Executive

The branch of government at the top that executes and administers policies and laws in a country// This branch runs government bureaucracy

2

Executives in Law Making

Executive play a major role in the public debate which leads to the making of new laws/they are considered a strong influence on the process of policymaking

3

Bureaucracy

The organization of an elected official’s which is considered part of the executive branch/implements execute and enforces laws.Example: department of defense or Education

4

Head of state

Has executive functions and is the countries symbolic representative /this includes presidents and unelected monarchs

5

Head of Government

Responsible for forming governments formulating and implementing policies

6

Prime Minister

The chief executive in a parliamentarian system of government

7

President

An executive leader that has functions as head of state and head of government/not directly responsible to a legislate

8

Monarch

Head of state in a monarchy which usually inherits the position for life may have substantial powers or very limited ceremonial powers

9

Government

In context of the executive this is the set of top elected officials and high-level political appointees that shape policy

10

Administration

The bureaucracy of state officials usually considered part of the executive branch

11

Executive – legislative relations

The set of political relationships between the executive branch of government which execute laws and the legislative branch which often has The authority to passed those laws

12

Presidentialism

A system of government in which a president serves as chief executive and as head of state independent of the legislators

13

Direct election

On the look Torel system in which voters cast a vote directly for the head of government or state

14

Parliamentarism

A system of government in which the head of government is elected by and accountable to a parliament or legislature

15

Indirect election

An elect Torel system in which most voters never cast a ballot directly for the individual who becomes head of government

16

Semi-presidential system

In mixed or hybrid system combining aspects of presidential and parliamentary systems

17

Formal powers

Powers possessed by political actor such as chief executive as a function of their constitutional or legal position

18

Veto

An act of executive power which an executive reject a law passed by legislature

19

Dissolving the legislature

The practice of a chief executive disbanding the legislature often accompanied in a democratic regime by calling for new elections

20

Decree

I’m executive made order that has the force of law despite not being passed through legislature

21

Executive order

An order made by chief executive or top official to the bureaucracy that determines how the bureaucracy should enact or interpret the law

22

State of emergency

A condition allowed by some constitutions in which guarantees rights or provisions or temporarily limited to be justified by emergencies or exceptional circumstances

23

Term limit

Restriction on the number of times or total mount of time a political official conserved in a given position

24

Impeachment

A process by which a legislature initiate proceedings to determine whether an official should be removed from office

25

Vote of no confidence

A vote taken by a legislature that expresses a lack of support for the government or executive which if successful often results in the dissolution of the government and calling of new legislative actions

26

Partisan powers

The powers Of influence over a government official such as chief executive by virtue of the officials leverage or power over the members of political party

27

Coalition

A group of two or more political parties that governs by sharing executive powers and responsibilities

28

Cabinet

Group of senior officials in the executive branch including ministers who advise the head of government or head of state

29

Portfolio

The set of duties and tasks that corresponds to a given ministerial office

30

Minimum winning Coalition

Contains no surplus parties be on those required to form a government

31

Minimum connected winning Coalition

In which all parties in the coalition are connected or adjacent to one another in the political spectrum

32

Minimum size

A governing coalition that is closest to the threshold needed to govern typically 50% of the legislative seats plus one seat

33

Grand coalition

Composed of two or more major parties that hold a super majority of legislative seats and represent a super majority of electorate

34

Informal powers

Powers possessed by office holder that are not official but rather based on customs convention or other sources of influence

35

Patronage

Use of government favors typically in the form of employment to garner political support

36

Clientelism

The practice of exchanging political favors often in the form of government appointment or services for political support

37

Formal powers

Powers assigned to the office of the president my constitutional authority or by law

38

Partisan Powers

Powers to control decisions and both of legislators and other politicians to control of political party

39

Informal powers

Powers of the president that are not official but come from in formal ability to influence public policy

40

Populism

If political approach in which leaders make direct appeals to the people and seek to develop direct political ties with the masses

41

Consociational

Systems that use formal mechanisms to Courtney different groups sharing access to power