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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Joints Deck (134)
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1

*Joint (Articulation or Arthrosis)

point of contact
-between 2 bones
-between bones and cartilage
-between bones and teeth

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Arthrology

study of joints

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Kinesiology

study of motion of the human body

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*How are joints classified?

Structural
-Is there a joint cavity?
-What type of connective tissue is involved?

Functional
-What degree of movement is produced?

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*Types of Structural Classification of Joints

Fibrous joints
Cartilaginous Joints
Synovial joints

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*Types of Functional Classification of Joints

Synarthrosis
Amphiarthrosis
Diarthrosis

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Fibrous joint

no synovial cavity
bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue rich in collagen fibers
permit little to no movement

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Cartilaginous joint

-no synovial cavity
-bones are held together by cartilage
-little to no movement (synarthrosis)
-articulating bones held together by hyaline or fibrous cartilage

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Synovial joint

bones forming these joints have a synovial cavity
united by dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule and often by accessory ligaments
freely moveable

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Synarthrosis

immoveable joint

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Amphiarthrosis

slightly moveable joint

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Diarthrosis

freely moveable joint
all are synovial joints
variety of shapes which permit several different movements

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3 types of Fibrous Joints

sutures
syndesmoses
interosseous membrane (type of syndesmoses)

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Suture (Fibrous Joint)

thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue
only between bones of the skull

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What are the functions of a suture?

interlocking edges add strength
decrease chance of fracturing
immoveable (synarthrosis) or slightly moveable (amphiarthrosis)
shock absorption of the skull

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Synostosis

complete fusion of two separate bones into one
immoveable (synarthrosis)

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Syndesmosis (syndesmoses) Fibrous Joint

-arranged in a bundle (band or ligament) which permits limited movement
-greater distance between articulating surfaces
-more dense irregular connective tissue than suture (interosseous membrane)

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Syndesmosis (syndesmoses) examples

tibiofibular ligament
dentoalveolar joint (gomphosis)
interosseous membrane

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Gomphosis (Fibrous Joint) Syndesmosis Type

articulation between roots of teeth
type of syndesmosis
cone shaped peg fits into socket

20

Interosseous Membrane (Fibrous Joint)

-Broad sheet of dense irregular connective tissue
-binds neighboring long bones
-important role in defining range of motion between them
-permits slight movement (amphiarthrosis)
-increased attachment surface for muscles (which produce movement of feet and digits

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Interosseous Membrane Examples (syndesmoses)

Between radius and ulna
Between Tibia and Fibula

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What 2 types of cartilage hold together cartilaginous joints?

hyaline or fibrous

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2 types of cartilaginous joints

synchondroses (epiphyseal cartilage is this type)
symphysis

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Synchondrosis (synchondroses) (Cartilaginous)

-connecting material is hyaline
-Slightly moveable (amphiarthrosis) to immoveable (synarthrosis)

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Synchondrosis (synchondroses) example

joint between first rib and manubrium

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Symphysis (Cartilaginous)

ends of articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage but a broad, flat disc of fibrouscartilage connects to bones
-all are midline in the body
-slightly moveable (amphiarthrosis)

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Symphysis Example

pubic symphysis
junction of manubrium and body of sternum
intervertebral discs

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Epiphyseal cartilage (Synchondroses)

hyaline cartilage growth centers during endochondrial bone formation
*NOT JOINTS ASSOCIATED WITH MOVEMENT
immoveable joint (synarthrosis)

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Epiphyseal cartilage Example

epiphyseal growth plate

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*When bone elongation ceases what happens?

bone replaces hyaline cartilage and becomes synostosis (bony joint)