Chapter 9 - Soil and Agriculature Flashcards Preview

AP Environmental Science Vocabulary > Chapter 9 - Soil and Agriculature > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Soil and Agriculature Deck (25):
1

no-till

agriculture that does not involve tilling (plowing, digging, harrowing, or chiseling) the soil. the most intense form of conservation fatique

2

cover crops

a crop that covers and anchors the soil during times between main crops, intended to reduce erosion

3

agriculture

the practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock for human use and consumption

4

cropland

land that people use for raising plants for food and fiber

5

rangland

land used for grazing livestock

6

sustainable agriculture

agriculture that can be practiced in the same way and in the same place far into the future. sustainable agriculture does not deplete soils nor reduce the clean water and genetic diversity essential to long-term crop and livestock production

7

substance agriculture

the oldest form of traditional agriculture in which farming families produce only enough food for themselves

8

industrial agriculture

a form of agriculture that uses large-scale mechanization and fossil fuel combustion, enabling farmers to replace horses and oxen with more powerful means of cultivating, harvesting, transporting, and processing crops. other aspects include irrigation and the use of inorganic fertilizers, the use of chemical herbicides and pesticides reduce competition from weeds and herbivory by insects

9

traditional agriculture

biologically powered agriculture in which human and animal muscle power, along side with hand tools and simple machines, perform the work of cultivating, harvesting, storing, and distributing crops

10

monocultures

the uniform planting of a single crop over a large area

11

polyculture

the planting of multiple crops in a mixed arrangement or in close proximity. an example is some traditional native american farming that mixed maize, beans, squash, and peppers

12

parent material

the base geological material in a particular area

13

bedrock

the continuous mass of solid rock that makes up earth's crust

14

weathering

the process by which rocks are broken down, turning large particles into smaller particles. weathering may proceed by physical, chemical, or biological means

15

humus

a dark, spongy, crumbly mass of material made up of complex organic compounds, resulting from the partial decomposition of organic matter

16

horizon

a distinct layer of soil

17

soil profile

the cross-section of a soil as a whole, from the surface to the bedrock

18

leaching

the process by which solid materials such as minerals are dissolved in a liquid (usually water) and transported to another location

19

irrigation

the artificial provision of water to support agriculture

20

waterlogging

the saturation of soil by water, in which water table is raised to the point that water bathes plant roots. Waterlogging deprives roots of access to gases, essentially suffocating them and eventually damaging or killing the plants

21

salinization

the buildup of salts in surface soil layers

22

fertilizer

a substance that promotes plant growth by supplying essential nutrients such as nitrogen or phosphorus

23

organic fertilizer

a fertilizer made up of natural materials (largely the remains or wastes of organisms), including animal manure; crop residues, fresh vegetation, and compost

24

compost

a mixture produced when decomposers break down organic matter, such as food and crop waste, in a controlled environment

25

conservation reserve program

U.S. policy in farm bills since 1985 that pays farmers to stop cultivating highly erodible cropland and instead place it in conservation reserves planted with grasses and trees