Chapter 9 - The Political Environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - The Political Environment Deck (8):
1

Institution of the State

- Legislative: Institutions that make the laws – parliament
- Executive: Put laws into effect and ensure desired outcomes
- Judicial: Interprets and applies laws – give state capacity to enforce laws

2

Different political systems

- Liberal democracy
- Authoritarian
- Communist
- Theocratic
- Unitary
- Federal

3

Liberal democracy

- Liberal democracy: Citizens have right to elect governments to represent their interests and have right to individual freedom
o Government institutions are based on majority rule
o State – constrained in their powers by other institutions
o They give right to personal and express views freely
o Mixed economy – private sector and public expenditure
o Found in rich, politically stable countries – North America, Japan

4

Authoritarian

One person/group of people exercise power unrestrained by laws
o Absence of checks and balances on power of the ruler
o Support from ruler is based on patronage – favors are dolled out in return for political support
o Not major markets for business as they constitute a small share of worlds population

5

Communist

Dominated by 1 political party
o Production of goods/services owned and controlled by the State - State has high degree of economic control over what is produced, how it is produced and who produces it
o Dominated by 1 political party
o Don’t value the right to personal freedom – emphasis on meeting needs of society as a whole

6

Theocratic

Religion of faith plays dominant role in government
o Rulers in government are normally same people who lead dominant religion
o Policies are either identical with or strongly influenced by principles of religion
o Government claims to rule on behalf of God or a higher power as specified by the local religion

7

Unitary

Where most decision making power is held by central government and where regions have little or no autonomy

8

Federal

Power is shared between the centre and regions. Regions may have specific decision-making power in relation to spending and taxation.