Chapter 9 - The Political Environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - The Political Environment Deck (8):

Institution of the State

- Legislative: Institutions that make the laws – parliament
- Executive: Put laws into effect and ensure desired outcomes
- Judicial: Interprets and applies laws – give state capacity to enforce laws


Different political systems

- Liberal democracy
- Authoritarian
- Communist
- Theocratic
- Unitary
- Federal


Liberal democracy

- Liberal democracy: Citizens have right to elect governments to represent their interests and have right to individual freedom
o Government institutions are based on majority rule
o State – constrained in their powers by other institutions
o They give right to personal and express views freely
o Mixed economy – private sector and public expenditure
o Found in rich, politically stable countries – North America, Japan



One person/group of people exercise power unrestrained by laws
o Absence of checks and balances on power of the ruler
o Support from ruler is based on patronage – favors are dolled out in return for political support
o Not major markets for business as they constitute a small share of worlds population



Dominated by 1 political party
o Production of goods/services owned and controlled by the State - State has high degree of economic control over what is produced, how it is produced and who produces it
o Dominated by 1 political party
o Don’t value the right to personal freedom – emphasis on meeting needs of society as a whole



Religion of faith plays dominant role in government
o Rulers in government are normally same people who lead dominant religion
o Policies are either identical with or strongly influenced by principles of religion
o Government claims to rule on behalf of God or a higher power as specified by the local religion



Where most decision making power is held by central government and where regions have little or no autonomy



Power is shared between the centre and regions. Regions may have specific decision-making power in relation to spending and taxation.