1. The fourth cranial nerve emerges from the
(A) interpeduncular fossa
(B) superior pontine sulcus
(C) dorsal surface of the midbrain
(D) lateral aspect of the pons
(E) cerebellopontine angle
1.C. The fourth cranial nerve (trochlear nerve) emergesfrom the dorsal surface of the midbrain,just caudal to the inferior colliculus.
2. Which of the following structures separates the anterior cerebellar lobe from the posterior cerebellar lobe?
(A) Sulcus limitans
(B) Horizontal fissure
(C) Primary fissure
(D) Posterolateral fissure
(E) Prepyramidal fissure
2-C. The primary fissure separates the anterior from the posterior cerebellar lobe.
3. The medulla includes all of the following structures EXCEPT the
(A) cuneate tubercle
(C) vagal trigone
(D) facial colliculus
(E) glossopharyngeal nerve
3-D. The facial colliculus is located in the pontine half of the rhomboid fossa and overlies the internal genu of the facial nerve and the abducent nucleus. The facial colliculus is a structure of the pontine tegmentum.
4. The limbic lobe includes all of the following structures EXCEPT the
(A) cingulate gyrus
(B) paraterminal gyrus
(C) parahippocampal gyrus
(D) dentate gyrus
(E) Ungual gyrus
4-E. The lingual gyrus lies below the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. It contains primary visual cortex and is not part of the limbic lobe.
5. All of the following statements concerning the hippocampal formation are correct EXCEPT it
(A) gives rise to the fornix
(B) includes the subiculum
(C) includes the dentate gyrus
(D) includes the posterior commissure
(E) lies between the hippocampal and choroidal fissures
5-D. The posterior commissure interconnects the pretectal nuclei of the midbrain and serves the pupillary light reflex
6. All of the following statements concerning the central sulcus are correct EXCEPT it
(A) separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
(B) separates the motor cortex from the sensory cortex
(C) extends into the paracentral lobule
(D) is located on the lateral convex surface of the hemisphere
(E) joins the lateral sulcus
6-E. The central sulcus is an important cerebral landmark. It separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, and it separates motor cortex from sensory cortex. It extends into the paracentral lobule on the medial surface, dividing it into anterior and posterior parts. It rarely joins the lateral sulcus.
7. The basal ganglia include all of the following structures EXCEPT the
(A) caudate nucleus
(D) globus pallidus
(E) amygdaloid nucleus
7-C.The thalamus is the largest part of thediencephalon; it is not a basal ganglion.
8. The telencephalon includes all of the following structures EXCEPT the
(B) cerebral hemispheres
(C) globus pallidus
(D) caudate nucleus
(E) internal capsule
8.A.The telencephalon contains the cerebral hemispheres, which contain the cerebral cortex
and white matter, the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdaloid nucleus), and the lateral ventricles. The thalamus is a part of the diencephalon.
9. The mesencephalon includes all of the following structures EXCEPT the
(A) cerebral peduncle
(B) cerebral aqueduct
(C) inferior colliculus
(D) pineal body
(E) oculomotor nerve
9-D. The mesencephalon (or midbrain) includes the cerebral peduncles, the superior and inferior colliculi, the oculomotor nerves, and the cerebral aqueduct. The pineal body (epiphysis cerebri) is a part of the epithalamus.
10. The frontal lobe includes all of the following areas EXCEPT
(A) Wernicke's speech area
(B) the motor strip (area 4)
(C) the precentral gyrus
(D) Broca's speech area
(E) the center controlling eye movements
10-A. The frontal lobe includes the motor strip, which is the precentral gyrus (area 4), and Broca's speech area in the dominant hemisphere (areas 44 and 45). The frontal eye field (area8) lies in the middle frontal gyrus. Wernicke's speech area (area 22) lies in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe.
11. All of the following statements concerning the cerebellum are correct EXCEPT it
(A) is found in the posterior cranial fossa
(B) is part of the brainstem
(C) is separated from the occipital lobes by
the tentorium cerebelli
(D) has three lobes
(E) has a tonsil
11-B. The cerebellum is found below the tentorium cerebelli in the posterior cranial fossa. It has three lobes: an anterior, a posterior, and a flocculonodular lobe. It has a tonsil that rests on the foramen magnum. It is not a part of the brainstem. The brainstem includes the midbrain,
pons, and medulla.
12. The parietal lobe contains all of the following structures EXCEPT the
(A) angular gyrus
(B) sensory strip (areas 3, 1, and 2)
(C) supramarginal gyrus
(D) primary auditory cortex
12-D. The parietal lobe contains the sensory strip, which is the postcentral gyrus (areas 3, 1,and 2), the supramarginal gyrus, and the angular gyri. The precuneus (area 7) lies on themedial aspect of the parietal lobe. Primary auditory cortex (areas 41 and 42) is found inHeschl's gyrus in the temporal lobe.
13-D. The carotid artery lies within the cavernous sinus, in company with CN III, CN IV, CN V-l, CN V-2, and CN VI
14-E. The hypophysis (pituitary gland) is found in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica
15-B. The caudate nucleus is part of the striatum.
16-A. The cingulate gyrus is part of the limbic lobe.
17-C. The optic chiasm lies within the chiasmatic cistern.
18-E. A lesion of the geniculocalcarine tract results in a contralateral hemianopia
19-D. The thalamus is the largest division of the diencephalon
20-C. The globus pallidus appears as a signal void in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images(MRIs). The globus pallidus, red nucleus, substantia nigra, and dentate nucleus have high iron concentrations; these nuclei all show low signal density in T2-weighted MRIs.
21-A. The rostrum of the corpus callosum interconnects the orbital cortices of the frontal lobe.
22-B. The putamen is a part of the striatum. The striatum consists of the caudate nucleus and the putamen.