Flashcards in Chapter II Review Deck (111)
Which two political doctorines ruled the Canadian population?
British Imperialism and Canadian Nationalism
What did British Imperialists believe in?
They believe in the consolidation of the British Empire and its control over Canada and its other Dominions. Some also believed in social Darwinism, feeling as if the Anglo-Saxon race had superiority over all other races.
What did Canadian Nationalists believe in?
Nationalists believed in Canadian autonomy within the empire.
What's another form of nationalism in Canada? What did it stand for?
French-Canadian Nationalism. It stood for the promotion and conservation of French-Canadian culture
Which association was created in 1884? Where in Canada was it the most popular? Where was it created?
-The Imperial Federation League
Which PM ruled during 1896-1911?
Which French-Canadian nationalist founded Le Devoir in MTL in 1910? What did he use Le Devoir for?
To promote Nationalist ideologies
Which association is opposite of the Imperial Federation League? When was it created?
The Nationalist League
What did Henri-Bourassa hope for in regard to unity?
He wished for the closing of divides between English Canadians, French Canadians, and immigrants.
What did Imperialists and Nationalists have in common?
Fearing an American invasion, belief that the Canadian race in extremley important
Which war lasted from 1899-1902?
The Boer War
How did the Boer war occur?
Descendants of Dutch settlers in South America requested autonomy from the UK. The UK refused because they wanted to continue minignt he gold and diamond mines in Tranvaal and the Orange Free State and politically control the region to uphold against nearby German influence. Tensions manifested into war.
What did Canadians think of the Boer war?
Imperialists wanted to support the UK, wanting to protect the mother country by sending soldiers and resources. Nationalists disagreed because they found sending sldiers and resources to be a waste. They also disagreed with the idea that Canada should participate in the war for simply being part of the British empire.
In regard to the Boer War, what did Laurier do?
Laurier sent 1000 volunteer soldiers and 3 million dollars to Britain.
Which league is created in support of creating a Canadian Navy? When and where was it created? Why was it created
The Navy League in Canada
1895 in Toronto
To protect territorial waters
Why was The Naval Service Act, the act that leads to the creation of the Royal Canadian Navy, signed in 1910?
Britain's naval withdraws from Canadian coasts and Germany's technological advancments
How many sailors did the Royal Canadian Navy have in 1914? Did the creation of the Navy satisfy Canadians?
No. Imperialists belived it was better to send money to the UK to improve their own navy, while nationalists disagreed with supporting the empire entirely (however some nationalists thought a navy was good for indepedance from the UK)
What did the Balfour Report (created in 1926 in London) state?
It stated that Britian and its dominions are all equally autonomous within the empire
What did the British Parliament pass in 1931 that recognized the legislative independence of commonwealth dominions?
The statute of Westminster
Random Fact: When did British Parliament ceased itself from being able to modify Canadian Constitution?
What did Clerico-Nationalism promote?
French culture, religion, law, Chritsian values, denouncing communist ideology
True or False: French Canadian made uo majority of the bourgeoisie
False. The english dominated the industry and bourgeoisie world while French-Canadians dominated the factory and farm world.
True or False: Certain French entrepreneurs owned small businessess
Who was Alphonse Desjardins?
French-Canadian entrepreneur, founder of Caisses populaires Desjardins
What did Caisse Desjardins do for French-Canadians?
French-Canadians were able to build capitals and attain financial autonomy.
What did the HEC (hautes études commerciales) do for French-Canadians?
Help them reach upper echelons within society.
True or False: The liberal era started when Wilfrid Laureier became PM
What did the liberal era see?
waves of immigration, new transcontinental railway, and the second phase of industrialization
Were federal-provincial relations good during the liberal era? Explain.
Yes. Due to the second phase of industrialization being primarily based on the exploitation of natural resources, provinces were able to profit well off of the provincial jurisdiction, giving them more fiscal powers.
How did this new provincial power differe from the power provinces have in 1867?
Fiscal powers were qually split between the federal and provincial governments, the federal government controlled the most profitable taxes, federal transfers did not take into account inflation.
Which two provinces joined Canada in 1905? Why were they formed?
Saskatchewan and Alberta
Which three provinces get their territories expanded to the 60th parallel in 1912?
Manitoba, Quebec, and Ontario.
How was the French language taught less in other provinces? (2)
- reduction of French teaching in provinces like Manitoba in 1916
- Ontario's regulation 17 (limited French language use in public schools)
Random Fact: When was Canada's bilinguism recognized?
How were the indigenous being mistreated and discriminated?
Their populations were isolated in reserves and heavily deprived of money, goods and services, and reserve land. They were only offered such in exchange for more of their land. They suffered malnutrition, lack of healthcare, overcrowding, and disease.
Which act made mandatory enrollement of indigenous populations into residential schools?
the 1920 Indian Act
Who prioritized immigration of the Canadian Prairies? Who did he target when advertising immigration to the prairies?
Eastern Europeans (agriculture heavy/labour accomodated populations) and Anglo-Saxons (similar culture = easy assimilation)
Who did Canada not want to immigrate to Canada?
Asians and Africans
What ways did Canada try to reduce the amount of non-white immigrants?
1885's Chinese Immigration Act (imposing head taxes to the Chinese)
1906's Immigration Act alterations (widening the spectrum of undesirable immigrants, arbritrary refusal, clear deportation instruction)
1908's Bill of direct passage
Why were Canadian strongly xenophobic?
They believed these minorities couldn't be easily assimilated
Which natural resources were exploited during the second phase of industrialization (1900-19200)?
Silver, copper, gold, asbestos,and nickel
What increased agricultural productions?
New technologies (e.g., Tractors)
True or False: Quebec was known for grain production while the Praisries were known for dairy production
False. Quebec was known for dairy production and the Prairies were known for grain production
What industried were dpendent on hydroelectricity?
Pulp and paper, aluminum smelter, petrochemical
why did service sectors (eg., banking, retailing, contruction, communication) expand?
Why were technical schools created in 1911?
To train factories on how to work in certain factory domains
What type of economic policy did Canada have?
What was the consequence of higher urban populations in regard to infrastructure?
More streetcar, railway, and boat transporation services (eg., paved roads, elevators for boats , conveyors for boats)
What was the consequence of the increase of paved roads?
Truck industry interest
True or false: Capitalism includes frequent government intervention
False. Capitalism includes scarce government intervention
What was the consequence of high urban population in regard to accomodation?
Due to how cities were not accomodated for so many people, working-class citizens fell subject to poor ventilation, overcrowd housing, lack of healthcare, affordable housing, and epidemics due to bad milk, water, and garbage in the streets
Which acts helped working-class citizens with their poor living conditions?
The Public Health Act (1901): brought upon low-cost housing, sewers, aqueducts, clinics, garbage collection, water purification, pasturization
Loi sur assistance publique (1921), allowing hospitilization costs to be shared between the provincial gov't, municipalities, and hospitals/ building bath houses, road networks for new transportation networks
What is zoning?
When the gov't (in this instance the Quebec gov't) strategically split lands of small cities around larger one into residential, commercial, and industrial ones
Why were firefighters now pubically established?
To help working-class neighbourhoods when fires occur
What started WW1?
The assassination of Franz Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip
What acts were placed during WW1
The 1914 War measures act: Allowded PM Robert L. Borden to bypass Parliament (govern by decree)
1917 Military Service Act: Made recruiment required for men who fit gov't description to go to war due to enlistment decline in 1916
What was offered during WW1 WW2 to help the war effort finance-wise?
Victory Bonds (investments made by the people that would be given back to them 5-20 eyars later with interest)
Why did WW1 longer than expected?
Why were goods (e.g., butter, gasoline, etc) rationed and requisitionned?
Most of those goods had to be sent ot Europe
Who opposed the Military Service Act? Why? What was created from this opposition?
they saw it as governmental betrayal due to how the government first promised that enlistment would not be mandatory
The fancoeur motion: Called for sovereignty
What did women do during WW1? Did they continue working after the war? What was a form of sexism in the workplace?
Work in factories while men were overseas.
Yes. The wage gap.
name six feminists that participated in advocating women's rights and the suffragette movement
-Caroline Béïque (founder of the FNSJB in 1907)
-Marie Lacoste Gérin-Lajoie (founder of the FNSJB in 1907, author of a treatsie on everyday law published in 1902, believed maternal instincts can provide a new viewpoint in society)
-Léa Roback (led a strike of 5000 women for lower work hours, higher slaries, 44-hour workweeks)
-Idola Saint-Jean and Thérèse Casgrain (believed that both sexes are equal and should have identical rights)
When did the right to federal vote to women was passed?
When was the right to vote passed in Quebec?
What era came after WW1?
The Roaring Twneties (time of economic prosperity)
What was the first movie theatre placed in Canada? By who? Where?When?
The Ouimetoscope, Léo-Ernest Ouimet, Montreal, 1906
How did Americans depict Canadians?
Lumberjacks, Gold panners, Royal Canadian mounted police
What the national Film Board do with cinema?
Promoted immigration to Canada
Fun Fact: Évangelique is the first ever Canadian feature-film
thats it its a fun fact
What did Radio popularize
Jazz and the Charleston
What was the CBC/Radio-Canada made for?
To get Canadians to listen to American radio stations
What did airplanes cause Canadians to do in regard to sports?
Participate in the 1908 London Olympic games
Fun Fact: Due to sports becomming something of National Pride, the government began to give money to Canadian athletes
thats it its a fun fact
When was the NHL created? When were the Montreal Canadians formed?
What made Canadian (specifically Quebec originating) cabarets so poular?
Americans came to Canada due to their Prohibition Act (Quebec only controlled the selling of alcohol using the Commission de liquers de Quebec au lieu of banning it like the US)
What did French-Canadians do in fear of assimilation?
The glorification of rual life using romans du territoir
Name two unions in Canada
The American Federation League (AFL): ran affiliate unions in Canada like The trades and labour congress of canada (TLCC), notpresent in Quebec due to language
The Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour (CCCL): to limit american influence and non-catholic unions, was a religious labour union until 1960 and became the confédération des syndicats nationaux (CSN)
What was Catholicism to French-Canadians?
Something that protected traditional cultures and French-Canadian culture
Whats was the rerum novarum? What did it promote?
A letter by Pope Leo XIII that condemmed unfair wealth distribution, critisized elimination of private property, and overall favourited capitalism
It promoted cooperatives (the joint owning of of resources so members can all profit from it)
true or False: the Chruch saw credit as a bad thing
False. The chruch saw credit as a way to promote their values and communal life. And even supported Desjardin's credit union and encouraged priests to have a Caisse Populaire in their parishes.
Where was the cooperative model applied? When did it begin to increase among sectors?
Agricultural, construction, fishing, and forest sectors
The Great Depression
Why were education rates in Quebec lower than any other province?
-French-canadians stayed in school for less time than English Canadians
-French-Canadians needed to drop out to help their famillies earn money
-Rural weather affected French-canadian attendance in schools
How was the education system split
Catholic and protestant (since 1869)
When did primary education become free?
1943 with the Compulsory School Attendance act
What happened during the Roaring Twenties that caused The Great Depression?
Buying until in debt, investing in stocks to try and pay back debt
When was Black Thursday? What happened
October 24th 1929
American industries saw a decline in prices and production caused investros to sell their stocks before the lost their value. Trading exploded and sales were so abundant that investrors were selling their stocks for a lot lower than buying in fear of not being able to sell them. Causing a 3 billion dollar loss in one day. American banks couldn't respons to high cash demands either and called for the repayment of foreign loans, affceting the whole world. Manufacturing ceased causing no need for raw materials.
What happened to Canada after the stock market crash?
Canadian companies went bankrupt
jobs became scarce
charity became overhwelmed
Immigrants were deported from unemployment and sickness
Birth rates dropped
How did Quebec try to handle The Great Depression?
Relief vouchers that could be exchanged for food, coal, and clothing.
return to the land project (encouraged the poor to colonize regions in the province. 27 regions were created but colonizers were unprepared, given unfertile lands, and were far away from markets)
What did the federal government do to try and handle The Great Depression?
Worked with provinces to create public work projects to create jobs, reduced customs, created the bank of canada in 1935 to regulate monetary policy and the finincial system, birthing of the welfare state
What is Keynesian economics? Who created it?
Belief that when private sectors cant provide the people with employment, the government should invest in job creation and lower taxes
John Maynard Kaynes
Name two examples of Canada adopting Keynesian economics
Creation of the National Employment Commission in 1935: Attempted to improve assistance and create jobs
Canada's Keynesian budget in 1939: where canada redistributes money to poorer provinces
Name the three political ideologies and parties that were alternatives to canada's conservative and liberal parties the people turned to due to the depression
Communism (left wing): Classless and leaderless society, equally distributed resources depending what is needed by each individual
- Communist Party of Canada (founded Toronto 1921)
Socialism (left wing): Increases state intervention, collective oenwershipog the means of production, less social inequality
- Co-operative commonwealth federation/New Democratic Party (CCF in 1932)
Facism (right wing):Agressive patrionism, nationalist ideology,xenophobia/ant-semitism, militarized political regime with a glorified dictator
- The Christian Nationalist Socialist Party led by Adrien Arcand
When did WW2 start
Two days after the invasion of Poland September 1st 1939, the UK and France declares war on Germany
What countries did Germany invade before the war started?
Austria & Czechoslovakia
Who composed the axis powers?
Germany Italy and Japan
Who primarily composed the allied forces
Britain, France, Russia, the US
When did the US declare war on Germany
after Japan bombed Pearl Harbour
What acts were places during WW2?
War measure act of 1939: suspended civil liberties, allowed infringement of provinvial powers, govern by decree
National Resources Mobilization Act of 1940: men and women aged 16-60 were to register on a list to be enrolled in contributing to the war effort at home.
Fun fact: Income taxes increased during WW2 and wartime supplies were rationned
What got Canada out of the depression?
Turning old factories into factories for war supplies caused the economy to boom, increasing employment.
Fun fact: Daycares were estbalished for children agres 12 and under for women who worked during WW2
What was used to motivate the people tocontribute in the war effort
Propoganda and censorship
True or false: Concription was adopted in 1944 due to a Plebecite
True or False: French-Canadians were less likely to volunteer to go to war because of their opposition to imperialism, government betrayal regarding conscription, and the language barrier against English-Canadians
Name two main abttles Canada participated in during WW2
the Dippe Raid in france aug.1942 and D-Day in normandy 1944
Name a battle that showed Canada's power in WW1
Battle of Vimy Ridge (1917)
When did Germany surrender?
May 8th 1945
When did Japan surrender
September 2nd 1945 after the bombing or Hiroshima and Nagasaki
What is the united nations
organization that supports the upholding of peace,security, and human rights
Did Canadians arrive back from Europe immediately?
No. return to canada was gradual