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Flashcards in Chapter Three Deck (18):

What is important about Graphs?

Graphs can be misleading; as critical thinkers, we want to know whether a sample represents a population, how the variables were actually measured, and whether a graph tells an accurate data story.


Describe a Scatterplot?

A Scatterplot is a graph that depicts the relation between two scale variables. The values of each variable are marked along the two axes, and a mark is made to indicate the intersection of the two scores for each participant. The mark is above the participant’s score on the x-axis and across from the score on the y-axis.


What is a Scatterplot?

Scatterplots and line graphs are used to depict relations between two scale variables.


What is a A Range-Frame

A Range-Frame is a scatterplot or related graph that indicates the range of the data on each axis; the lines extend only from the minimum to the maximum scores.


What is a Linear Relation?

A linear relation between variables means that the relation between variables is best described by a straight line.


What is a nonlinear relation

A nonlinear relation between variables means that the relation between variables is best described by a line that breaks or curves in some way.


What is a Line Graph?

A Line Graph is used to illustrate the relation between two scale variables.variable


What is a bar Graph?

A Bar Graph is a visual depiction of data in which the independent variable is nominal or ordinal and the dependent variable is scale. The height of each bar typically represents the average value of the dependent variable for each category.


What is a Pareto Chart?

A Pareto Chart is a type of bar graph in which the categories along the x-axis are ordered from highest bar on the left to lowest bar on the right.


What is a Pictorial Graph?

A Pictorial Graph is a visual depiction of data typically used for an independent variable with very few levels (categories) and a scale dependent variable. Each level uses a picture or symbol to represent its value on the scale dependent variable.


What is a Pie Chart

A Pie Chart is a graph in the shape of a circle, with a slice for every level (category) of the independent variable. The size of each slice represents the proportion (or percentage) of each level.


What is the best way to graph?

The best way to determine the type of graph to create is to identify the independent variable and the dependent variable, along with the type of variable that each is—nominal, ordinal, or scale.


What is a Chartjunk?

Chartjunk is any unnecessary information or feature in a graph that detracts from a viewer’s ability to understand the data.


What is a Moiré Vibration?

Moiré vibrations are any visual patterns that create a distracting impression of vibration and movement.


What is a Grid?

Grids are chartjunk that take the form of a background pattern, almost like graph paper, on which the data representations, such as bars, are superimposed.


What gives a graph Clarity

Avoid chartjunk—any unnecessary aspect of a graph that detracts from its clarity.


What is a Duck, when referring to a chart?

A Duck is a form of chartjunk in which a feature of the data has been dressed up to be something other than merely data.


What are computer defaults?

Computer defaults are the options that the software designer has preselected; these are the built-in decisions that the software will implement if you do not instruct it otherwise.