Flashcards in Chapter One Deck (32):

1

## What is a Descriptive Statistic?

###
A descriptive statistic organizes, summarizes, and

communicates a group of numerical observations.

2

## What is an Inferential Statistic?

###
An inferential statistic uses sample data to make general

estimates about the larger population.

3

## What is a Sample?

###
A sample is a set of observations drawn from the

population of interest.

4

## What is a population?

###
The population includes all possible observations about

which we’d like to know something.

5

## What is the difference between Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics?

###
Descriptive Statistics summarize numerical information about a sample.

Inferential Statistics draw conclusions about the broader population based on numerical information from a sample.

6

## What is a Variable?

### A variable is any observation of a physical, attitudinal, or behavioral characteristic that can take on different values.

7

## What is a Discrete Observation?

### A discrete observation can take on only specific values (e.g., whole numbers); no other values can exist between these numbers.

8

## What is a Continuous Observation?

### A continuous observation can take on a full range of values (e.g., numbers out to several decimal places); an infinite number of potential values exists.

9

## What is a nominal variable?

### A nominal variable is a variable used for observations that have categories, or names, as their values.

10

## What is an ordinal variable?

### An ordinal variable is a variable used for observations that have rankings (i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd . . .) as their values.

11

## What is an Interval Variable?

### An Interval Variable is a variable used for observations that have numbers as their values; the distance (or interval) between pairs of consecutive numbers is assumed to be equal.

12

## What is a Ratio Variable?

### A Ratio Variable is a variable that meets the criterion for an interval variable but also has a meaningful zero point.

13

## What are the three main types of Variables?

### The three main types of variables are nominal (or categorical), ordinal (or ranked), and scale. The third type A scale variable is a variable that meets the criteria for an interval variable or a ratio variable

14

## What is a Scale Variable?

### A Scale Variable is a variable that meets the criteria for an interval variable or a ratio variable.

15

## What is a Level?

### A Level is a discrete value or condition that a variable can take on.

16

## What is an Independent Variable?

### An Independent Variable has at least two levels that we either manipulate or observe to determine its effects on the Dependent Variable.

17

## What is a Dependent Variable?

### A dependent variable is the outcome variable that we hypothesize to be related to or caused by changes in the independent variable.

18

## What is a Confounding Variable?

### A Confounding Variable is any variable that systematically varies with the independent variable so that we cannot logically determine which variable is at work; also called a Confound

19

## Why do we conduct Research?

### We conduct research to see if the independent variable predicts the dependent variable.

20

## What does Reliability refer to?

### Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure.

21

## What does Validity refer to?

### Validity refers to the extent to which a test actually measures what it was intended to measure.

22

## What are the properties of a Good Measure?

### A Good Measure is both Reliable and Valid.

23

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

### Hypothesis Testing is the process of drawing conclusions about whether a particular relation between variables is supported by the evidence.

24

## What is operationalize or an operational definition?

### An operational definition specifies the operations or procedures used to measure or manipulate a variable.

25

## What is a Correlation

### A correlation is an association between two or more variables.

26

## How does Random Assignment work?

### In random assignment every participant in a study has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups, or experimental conditions, in the study.

27

## What is an Experiment?

### An experiment is a study in which participants are randomly assigned to a condition or level of one or more independent variables.

28

## What is the difference between a Correlational Study and an Experiment?

### When possible, researchers prefer to use an experiment rather than a correlational study. Experiments use random assignment, which is the only way to determine whether one variable causes another.

29

## How does a Between-Groups research design work?

### In a between-groups research design, participants experience one and only one level of the independent variable.

30

## How does a Within-Groups research design work?

### In a within-groups research design all participants in the study experience the different levels of the independent variable; also called a repeated-measures design.

31

## What is an outlier?

### An outlier is an extreme score that is either very high or very low in comparison with the rest of the scores in the sample.

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