Chapter4-Logics, Ethics, and Decision Making Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter4-Logics, Ethics, and Decision Making Deck (58):
1

What is the ability to reason and present a strong argument in favor of or against a position. It also is the ability to recognize fallacies in the arguments of others and their body able to refute or correct the opposing position?

Logic

2

Analysis of the principles of human conduct in order to be able to determine between right or wrong is what?

Ethics

3

What is the ability to have empathy or sympathy for another person and make arguments based on emotional appeals?

Pathos

4

What are the four types of reasoning?

Inductive, deductive, causal, and analogical

5

What is the process that arrives at a general conclusion based on a foundation of specific examples or data such as stats, charts, and graphs

Inductive reasoning

6

What are numbers that are gathered as raw data to support the argument?

Statistics

7

What is the process of reaching a specific conclusion based on a general statement or principal?

Deductive reasoning

8

What is a three-part statement consisting of a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion?

Syllogism

9

What is the three-step ethics check?

Is it legal? Is it fair? How will it make me feel?

10

What is the process based on the premise that the relationship between two or more events in such a way that it is obvious one because the other?

Causal reasoning

11

The causal process is based on specific occurrences and is closely linked with what other type of reasoning?

Inductive

12

Based on a comparison between two similar cases it infers that word is true in one case must be true in the other is what type of reasoning?

Analogical reasoning

13

What is a false or fallacious reasoningthat occurs when someone attempts to persuade others without evidence?

Fallacy

14

What fallacy takes place when an individual makes a faulty connection between the cause and effect

Causal fallacy

15

What fallacy occurs when people make the statement that everybody is doing it so it must be right?

Bandwagon fallacy

16

What fallacy occurs when a week easily refuted statement is made to take attention off of the main point?

Strawman fallacy

17

What fallacy makes an argument or conclusion that is based on insufficient or nonexistent evidence often times through stereotyping?

Hasty generalization fallacy

18

What Salacia occurs when someone uses your relevant facts to distract the listener from the main issue and this is staple of politicians

Read herring fallacy

19

What is the non sequitur fallacy?

A fallacy where the argument does not follow the topic

20

What fallacy consist of a series of worsening consequences that are assumed will result from the initial decision?

Slippery slope fallacy

21

What is the philosophical principle that is used to determine correct and proper behavior by the members of society?

Ethics

22

What is the bottom line mentality?

Essentially a company is only concerned with the bottom line and does not pay attention to ethical or unethical decisions

23

What is a pork barrel project?

Government expenditure that has no real value other than making a political figure look good

24

What are the four main reasons for lying?

Basic needs, affiliation, self-esteem, or self gratification

25

What is a 1 to 2 page statement of the values that govern the organization and the expectations desired in the actions of management and membership?

Written code of ethics

26

What is a four-way test described as a means of testing the ethical value of a decision?

Abilene paradox

27

If a situation or problem requires a decision then officers should follow the basic assessment which asks how many questions?

4

28

What is the first question in the basic assessment?

Is the decision within the Authority of the company officer

29

What is the second question and the basic assessment model?

Is there sufficient information available about the situation or problem to make an informed decision

30

What is the third question and the basic assessment model?

How with the decision affect the unit or the organization

31

What is the fourth question in the basic assessment model?

Is the problem worth the effort

32

What are decisions that are routine or we Koering and are generally based on standards, rules, regulations, procedures, or policies

Generic decisions

33

What are decisions that involve a non-recurring, nonroutine, unique, and significant situation?

Exceptional decisions

34

What are the three conditions that affect decisions?

Certainty, risk, and uncertainty

35

Decisions that have known results and require specific resources or what?

Certainly decisions

36

Decisions that will have probable consequences, although there is possibility of an unknown outcome is what

Risk decisions

37

Decisions that have completely unknown consequences, usually because of the lack of information are known as what?

Uncertainty decisions

38

The rational decision model is most often used on what type of decisions?

Generic

39

What model allows the leader to select the decision that will satisfy the minimal requirements of the situation?

Bounded rationality model

40

The bounded rationality model is most often used in what type of decisions

Generic

41

What management style is used when leaders use groups to help in the decision-making process

Participatory management style

42

What are the six steps to the decision-making process

Classify the problem, defined the problem, list alternative options, determine the best response, convert the decision to an action, and finally test action against the desired result

43

Do generic or exceptional problems require more data to determine the specific problem?

Generic

44

Do generic or exceptional problems require that information related to the specific event be gathered quickly?

Exceptional

45

In the six step decision making process which step is the key element that changes and attention into an active decision?

Convert the decision to an action

46

Internal barriers are the result of what?

Psychological conflict with the individual

47

How can individuals overcome fear?

Ask questions such as what is the worst thing that can happen

48

Ego or self-esteem issues can be overcome by?

EAP program is in counseling

49

What should an officer do if he feels possible indecisiveness in a decision?

Make the best judgment he can and any decision is better than a no decision

50

What causes distrust?

Low self-esteem

51

How can an officer overcome antagonism?

By providing clear and concise instructions and listening to the ideas and concerns of others

52

How can jealousy be overcome?

Good communication skills and treating others with respect

53

How can an individual overcome external barriers?

Understand that these barriers are outside of the individuals control

54

How can an officer overcome lack of capacity with external/organizational policy?

Build political alliances inside and outside the organization

55

How can one prevent the Abilene paradox from happening?

Communication

56

What is the most popular four-way test for fire officers when trying to determine if a decision is ethical or not?

Is the decision based on will analyze facts, is the decision based on ethical values held by the community, well the decision build strong internal and extra no relationships, and will the decision benefit everyone involved

57

What is the word that describes active opposition the decision-maker will compromise despite knowing this is not the best option

Antagonism

58

What dooms decisions to failure from the start

Lack of membership support