Chapters 2-5 Flashcards Preview

Communications 100 > Chapters 2-5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 2-5 Deck (95)
Loading flashcards...
1

the set of symbols or words that are used to create a symbol for communicating between individuals

language

2

simplest; the first level of language where the focus is placed on sounds and the alphabet

phonetics

3

the distinctive sounds, unique to each language, that words are composed of

Phonemes

4

the second level of language where the focus is placed on words and their meanings

Semantics

5

someone who studies the change of words and their meanings over a period of time

Semanticist

6

the third level of language is the level that focuses on how words are arranged to form phrases and sentences, otherwise known as syntax

Syntactic level

7

the fourth level of language is the level of language that looks at how language is used in social situations

Pragmatics

8

English for paper, this was the substance created by the Egyptians made from reeds found along the banks of the Nile River that Ancient Egyptians used for keeping written records

Papyrus

9

professional writers, always men, who were trained to read and write in ancient civilizations

Scribes

10

writing surface created from the soaking, stretching, and dying of calf, goat, and sheep skin

Parchment

11

Printing style used by the Chinese, employing stamp-like devices to transfer images from wood using thick coats of ink onto paper

Block Printing

12

separate characters placed individually on tiles, made of wood or clay, to be reused to form a variety of words and sentences in printing

Movable Types

13

a system of raised dots representing the letters of the alphabet and other symbols that aid in communication for the blind

Braille

14

a dot and dash messaging system used first in telegraphs and later by radios to communicate

Morse Code

15

online places where people gather virtually to share information about themselves and their lives with others on the web

Social Networks

16

the predecessor to the Internet created by the US Military to link all of their computers together forming a network

ARPANET

17

when a listener is not fully engaged in the listening process which results in a lack of awareness of a message being sent from a given source

passive listening

18

when a listener is fully engaged in the listening processes and the message being sent is recognized and received

active listening

19

listening for differences in sounds and signs

discriminative listening

20

listening where we make sense of or understand the message being sent to us

comprehension listening

21

listening in order to judge, criticize, or evaluate something

critical listening

22

listening to hear what we want to hear or listening based on preconceived notions and stereotypes

biased listening

23

listening to hear information that will satisfy our own needs

appreciative listening

24

listening that occurs when we are genuinely concerned for or care about another person

sympathetic listening

25

listening in search of a way to understand someone's feelings

empathetic listening

26

listening as part of a conversation or exchange of thoughts and ideas

dialogic listening

27

a discussion where issues are closely looked at and examined and a shared understanding is reached

dialogue

28

noise that is created internally as a result of intrapersonal communication

Psychological noise

29

between 2 people

diatic

30

occur when each member brings something to the relationship that the other person lacks

complementary relationships

31

occur when both members of the relationship share highly similar qualities that in some cases mirror each other

symmetrical relationships

32

the process of revealing things about yourself that people are unlikely to know

self-disclosure

33

the tension that exists between two conflicting people or forces

dialectics

34

problems that arise due to an opposition in needs or interests

conflict

35

conflict resolution style where one person gives in to let the other person get what they want, thus smoothing over the conflict

accommodating

36

conflict resolution style where both parties make concessions in order to get an end that they both can agree on to resolve the conflict

compromising

37

conflict resolution style where an individual withdraws from a situation, refusing to deal with the problem altogether

avoiding

38

conflict resolution style where one person ends up "winning" while the other person "loses"

competing

39

conflict resolution style where both parties come together to agree upon conditions of a solution that meet all of their demands and needs

collaboration

40

the use of communication to reach a mutual agreement

negotiating

41

communication codes consisting of symbols that are not words

nonverbal codes

42

occurs when a nonverbal code is used in conjunction with a verbal code to strengthen the message

accentuation

43

nonverbal codes are added to verbal codes in order to add meaning to an expand upon both

complementation

44

occurs when nonverbal codes conflict with verbal codes

contradiction

45

occurs when the same message is sent using verbal and nonverbal codes

repetition

46

the use of nonverbal codes to monitor and control your interaction with others

regulation

47

occurs when nonverbal codes are used in place of verbal codes

substitution

48

the study of how bodily movements communicate messages

kinesics

49

nonverbal movements that represent a certain word or phrase

emblems

50

nonverbal movements that are meant to go along with or reinforce a verbal message

illustrators

51

nonverbal movements of the face and body to show emotion

affect displays

52

nonverbal movements that control the pace of communication

regulators

53

nonverbal movements that are usually done in order to make you feel better and alleviate tension within your body

adaptors

54

the study of how humans use space and distance and how this affects communication

proxemics

55

that distance that extends outward from you 18 inches

intimate distance

56

that distance that extends 18 inches to 4 feet from you

personal distance

57

that distance that extends 4 to 12 feed from you

social distance

58

the space that extends past 12 feet from you

public distance

59

the study of time, particularly how people organize and use it and this organization's effect on communication

chronemics

60

the study of how physical touch affects communication

haptics

61

the use of touch in communication

tactile communication

62

the study of our voice

vocalics

63

vocal characteristics

paralanguage

64

the loudness or softness of the voice

volume

65

the speed at which you speak

rate

66

how high or low someone speaks

pitch

67

the change in pitch or loudness of the voice

inflection

68

words such as uh um like you know and so on

vocal fillers

69

the richness or thinness of your voice

resonance

70

a set of moral standards and principles

ethics

71

those groups whose purpose is to shape our self-esteem and personality all the while offering us feelings of safety and support

social groups

72

those groups that we belong to in order to complete a specific job or task

work groups

73

a group where members are all responsible for performing the same activity and pool their work together to create a finished product

additive work groups

74

a group where members perform tasks that are different but related in order to meet a goal

conjunctive work groups

75

a group where members are responsible for solving a problem

disjunctive task work group

76

tasks that require members to choose one correct answer to a problem from all of the potential solutions

judgement tasks

77

tasks that require group members to decide on the bes alternative out of a set of options

decision-making tasks

78

groups that evolve spontaneously or form to serve a specific purpose

emergent work groups

79

the idea that the collaborative efforts of a group are better at solving problems and getting work done than individual alone

group synergy

80

the need to establish identity as part of a group

inclusion

81

the need to assert authority over a group and prove one's abilities

control

82

the need to establish relationships with other people

affection

83

the belief of group members who share a common goal that the work they do will be affected by other members of the group

social interdependence

84

the stage of group development where members get to know each other and are introduced to the task at hand

forming

85

the stage of group development where work commences and members begin to establish themselves within the group

storming

86

the stage of group development where rules are established that will dictate how the group's goal will be accomplished

norming

87

rules that are not clearly started or written down but are understood by members of the group

implicit rules

88

rules that are written down and clearly stated for all members to know

explicit rules

89

the stage of group development where members work to reach a conclusion that they will subsequently implement

performing

90

the stage of group development where to group disbands becauses all of the work has been completed

adjourning

91

the roles responsible for specific tasks within a group

task-oriented roles

92

the roles responsible for the socialization and morale of the group

social roles

93

the roles that place the needs and desires of the group member before that of the group

individualistic roles

94

the tendency of members of a group to agree on a solution based on group consensus alone rather than weighing all of the possible options

groupthink

95

the reaction that occurs in a small group where a group's size affects the output of the work done by its members

the Ringelmann Effect