Which hormone is released into your blood when your blood glucose levels are lower than normal?
What is peat?
Produced over thousands of years from moss in wet acidic boggy areas. It is very rich in nutrients and has been dug up and sold for compost
Why does the dialysis fluid contain glucose at the same concentration as a healthy human?
So that the concentration of glucose will not change ? it won’t diffuse through the membrane
Why are transplant patients more at risk of infection?
They have to take immunosuppressant drugs to prevent the immune system attacking the transplanted organ
How can carbon dioxide be removed from the atmosphere
Trees and plants take up carbon dioxide by photosynthesis
What are the negative consequences of destroying and removing peat from peat bogs?
loss of a diverse habitat, when the moss is aerated it begins to decay which releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and contributes to global warming
Describe the meaning of the term sustainable?
Sustainable means using resources for human needs without harming the environment
State two major reasons for deforestation
To provide timber for furniture, building and fuel and for creating land for farming / building
State the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels
Advantages: Reduces fossil fuel usage by providing an alternative fuel, no overall increase in the level of carbon dioxide, doesn?t produce particulates. Disadvantages: habitat loss, extinction of species.
What is type 1 diabetes?
Where patients do not make enough insulin and so blood glucose level is not controlled.
Why is it dangerous if your core body temperature drops below 350C
Enzymes will not work properly and chemical reactions will slow down. You will become hypothermic
Population increase has negative effects on the environment. Suggest these negative effects.
Shortage of food in some countries, more land being used for farming and building, more pollution being produced, the world?s resources are being used faster than they can be replaced
What is the energy source for making biofuels?
The sunlight used in photosynthesis
What actions have governments taken to prevent overfishing?
Net size ? larger holes to allow younger fish to escape and breed ? replenish the population and fishing quotas ? prevent endangered species from being overfished
Apart from urea what else does the kidney regulate?
Excess salt (ions) and water
What are the effects of deforestation?
Increases CO2 (global warming), loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, loss of future resources
Why do we describe biogas as carbon neutral?
The carbon dioxide taken in during the growing of the biofuels in photosynthesis is released again when the fuel is burnt
Which organ removes urea?
What conditions must be kept constant in the production of mycoprotein?
The pH and the temperature
Name five internal conditions that must be kept constant
pH, Water, ion content, temperature, blood sugar levels
Why does the renal dialysis fluid have to be changed after a dialysis session?
The dialysis fluid will contain the patients excess salt and water
What is mycoprotein?
A high protein low fat meat substitute that can be flavoured made from a fungus
What are the major sources of these gases?
Methane from cattle farming and rice paddy fields. Carbon dioxide from increased combustion (burning) of fossil fuels to supply us with energy.
Why does the renal dialysis fluid have to be sterile?
To prevent infections
Explain why a recipient may reject a transplanted kidney?
The recipients immune system can recognize that the antigens on the transplanted kidney are not their own. The white blood cells would then attack and destroy the organ
How does sweating cool you?
Sweating cools the body because the water evaporates and takes the heat away with it.
How does shivering warm you up?
Stimulates the skeletal muscles to contract and relax quickly which requires energy from respiration. Respiration produces heat.
Which of these are carbohydrates and which are proteins? Glucagon, glucose, glycogen, insulin
Carbs: Glucose, glycogen. Proteins: Glucagon, Insulin
List three ways in which farming can damage the environment
Cows produce methane ? greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming, the use of fertilisers can run off the soil polluting the rivers which can cause eutrophication and the use of pesticides / herbicides which can wash into waterways and build up in the food chain to toxic levels
Name two food products produced by yeasts
Alcohol and bread
Why has there been an increase in the two major greenhouse gases?
Increased combustion demand for energy. Increased demand for meat ? more farming
How would controlling the temperature of animals reduce energy loss?
Warm: Reduce heat loss, less energy wasted in keeping warm.
Nerves stimulate the blood vessels that supply the capillaries in the skin. They dilate and this allows more blood to flow to the surface. The excess heat radiates away from the body
How would the water content of your urine change if the weather was hot but you didn?t drink any water
Urine would be very concentrated, little water
Explain three ways in which deforestation results in carbon dioxide release
Slash and burn ? removing the trees which take in carbon dioxide when they photosynthesize. Burning the trees which release carbon dioxide when they burn. The release of carbon dioxide from the microbes that decompose the decaying material
Which organ monitors your blood glucose levels?
Why do people with diabetes urinate very frequently?
When the kidneys filter the blood too much glucose is filtered out and the kidneys do not reabsorb the glucose. Glucose passes out of the urine and a lot of water goes with it. This is also why diabetics feel very thirsty
List the disadvantages of energy efficient farming
Greater risk of disease spreading between animals, inhumane / cruel, poor quality product
After 1900 there was a dramatic rise in the population. Suggest reasons why
Diet improved, hygiene improved, healthcare improve, infant mortality fell
Why can exercise cause us to overheat?
Increases respiration which produces heat as a byproduct
Explain why blood glucose level rises after you have eaten a meal?
the digested carbohydrates (glucose) enters your blood via the walls of the small intestine
What is the affect of carbon dioxide released from cars factories, burning wood?
This greenhouse gas contributes to global warming
Which two gases are the main greenhouses gases?
Methane and carbon dioxide
How do farmers maximize energy transfers?
Reduce animal movement / control the temperature of their animals
Why must blood sugar be regulated?
Needed for respiration. Too little ? tired and faint. Too much and water would leave the cells by osmosis