Chapters 5, 6, & 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 5, 6, & 7 Deck (82)
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A point of unsaturation in a fatty acid is identified by the presence of a:

double bond

1

The best way to describe a fatty acid that has one point of saturation is:

monounsaturated

2

A fatty acid that has two double bonds lacks_____hydrogen units.

4

3

The position of the first double bond from the methyl end of a fatty acid is known as:

omega

4

A fat that is less likely to become rancid can also be described as:

saturated

5

The process of hydrogenation:

offers food products resistance to oxidative effects

6

Which of the following statements about lecithin is false?

Dietary supplements are required in order to obtain the required amount.

7

Of the following structures, which is not considered to be a lipid?

amine

8

An omega-6 fatty acid can be described as having the:

first double bond 6 carbons away from the methyl end

9

Fat remnants from chylomicrons are processed in the:

liver

10

The fatty acid that is necessary for the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids is:

linolenic acid

11

A person who is looking to lower their dietary intake of cholesterol would focus on decreasing the consumption of:

steak

12

If a fat source is considered to represent discretionary kcalories, this would be interpreted as:

It provides sources of saturated fat in the diet and should be limited.

13

In order to decrease the amount of saturated fat intake in the diet one should encourage individuals to:

trim excess fat from cooked meats

14

Which of the following foods does not represent an invisible fat source?

butter

15

The use of olive oil helps to protect against heart disease by:

increasing LDL cholesterol

16

In order to assume maximum stability, protein shapes are organized such that:

hydrophobic groups are located away from water

17

The action of hydrochloric acid in the stomach on protein results in:

denaturation

18

The action of antidiuretic hormone in the body serves to regulate:

fluid & electrolyte

19

Extremes in acid-base balance in the body affect proteins by:

altering their shape and making them useless

20

A person who has been sick for one week with a viral infection and fever is most likely to experience:

negative nitrogen balance

21

Which amino acid is a precursor for vitamin B3 and serotonin?

tryptophan

22

The desalination process of protein results in:

production of ammonia

23

The highest digestibility of protein is found in:

animal sources

24

Which of the following is not considered to provide a high-quality protein even though it is from animal source?

gelatin

25

Legumes and grains in combination are effective complementary proteins because they:

balance each other's strengths and weaknesses

26

Kwashiorkor is distinguished from marasmus in that:

it is associated with a loss of appetite

27

Elevated levels of the amino acid homocysteine are associated with a(n):

Reduction in cardiac disease

28

How can protein's effect on adult bone loss be characterized?

dependent on gender

29

The use of amino acids as dietary supplements is considered to be especially inappropriate for:

women of childbearing age

30

The congenital disease PKU occurs because of a missing:

amino acid

31

An individual who has kidney disease with respect to protein intake:

May need restrictions or limitations in order to prevent further renal complications.

32

The RDA for protein:

is higher for infants and children than adults

33

What are the three types of lipids found in the body and foods?

triglycerides-predominant one in foods and body
phospholipids
sterols

34

What features distinguish fatty acids from each other?

length of carbon chains
degrees of unsaturation
location of their double bonds

35

What does hydrogenation do to fats?

It protects against oxidation and alters the texture of foods by making liquid vegetable oils more solid.

36

Saturated fatty acids:

are fully loaded with hydrogens

37

A triglyceride consists of:

three fatty acids attached to a glycerol

38

The difference between -cis and -trans fatty acids is:

the configuration around the double bond

39

Which of the following is not true? Lecithin is:

an essential nutrient

40

How many amino acids are there?

20

41

How many amino acids are essential?

9

42

What do lipoproteins do?

They carry triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol throughout the body.

43

What are the differences among the chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL?

chylomicrons: largest and contain mostly dietary triglycerides
VLDL: smaller and are about half triglycerides
LDL: small still and contain mostly cholesterol
HDL: the densest and are rich in protein

44

Chylomicrons are produced in the:

small intestine

45

Transport vehicles for lipids are called:

lipoproteins

46

Which of the following is NOT true? Fats:

contain glucose

47

The essential fatty acids include:

linoleic and linolenic acids

48

What are dietary recommendations regarding fat and cholesterol intake?

Dietary Guidelines recommend replacing saturated fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, particularly omega-3 fatty acids from foods such as fatty fish, not supplements.

49

The lipoprotein most associated with a high risk of heart disease is:

LDL

50

A person consuming 2200 kcalories a day who wants to meet health recommendations should limit daily fat intake to:

50 to 85 grams

51

What does each amino acid contain?

amino group
acid group
hydrogen atom
side group

52

Isoleucine, leucine, and lysine are:

essential amino acids

53

Which part of its chemical structure differentiates one amino acid from another?

it's side group

54

In the stomach, hydrochloric acid:

denatures proteins and activates pepsin

55

How does the body use amino acids?

release of amino acids via protein degradation and excretion can be tracked by measuring nitrogen base.

56

Proteins that maintain the acid-base balance of the blood and body fluids by accepting and releasing hydrogen ions are:

buffers

57

If an essential amino acid that is needed to make a protein is unavailable, the cells must:

break down proteins to obtain it

58

Protein turnover describes the amount of protein:

synthesized and degraded

59

Which of the following foods provides the highest quality protein?

Egg

60

The protein RDA for a healthy adult who weighs 180 pounds is:

65 grams/day

61

Which of these foods has the least protein per 1/2 cup?

orange juice

62

Hydrolysis is an example of a(n):

catabolic reaction

63

During metabolism, released energy is captured and transferred by:

adenosine triphosphate

64

The body derives most of its energy from:

glucose and fatty acids

65

Glycolysis:

converts glucose to pyruvate

66

The pathway from pyruvate to acetyl CoA:

is metabolic irreversible

67

For complete oxidation, acetyl CoA enters:

the TCA cycle

68

Deamination of an amino acid produces:

ammonia and a keto acid

69

Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy-yielding nutrients is broken down to:

acetyl CoA

70

The body stores energy for future use in:

triglycerides

71

During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose from:

amino acids

72

During a fast, the body produces ketone bodies by:

condensing acetyl CoA

73

Phospholipids:

Solubility in fat and water
emulsifiers in food industry
lecithin
food sources
part of cell membrane

74

Saturated fats:

increase LDL cholesterol, promote blood clotting

75

What percent of kcalories should removed?

20 to 35 percent

76

What are the DRIs percentage of linolenic and linoleic?

Linoleic: 5-10% of daily energy
Linolenic: 0.6-1.2% of daily energy

77

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E and K

78

Amino acid sequencing:

Primary structure- chemical bonds
Secondary structure- electrical attractions
Tertiary structure- hydrophilic and hydrophobic
Quaternary structure- two or more polypeptides

79

mRNA:

carries code to ribosomes
specifies sequence of amino acids

80

What are the building blocks for most body structures?

Collagen

81

Enzymes:

break down, build up, and transform substances