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What is stimulus control?

The increase in behavior from an event that precedes the behavior.


What is a stimulus?

Anything that affects a person's behavior.


What is discrimination?

Distinguishing among different situations.


What are the tactics in using the stimulus control strategy?

1. Narrow stimulus control through Discrimination training
2. Broaden stimulus control through Generalization training
3. Create new stimulus control through Fading/programming-temporarily using prompts
4. Create complex stimulus control through Imitation/instructional training
5. Make reinforcement more practical through Conditioned reinforcement


Define discrimination training

A procedure where a behavior is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus and extinguished in the presence of another.


Define discriminative stimulus

(SD) a stimulus that precedes the behavior and is present only if reinforcement will occur for that behavior.


Define S-delta

A stimulus that precedes the behavior and is present only if extinction will occur for that behavior.


Define discriminated behavior

A behavior that is more likely to occur in the presence of an SD than an S-delta.
-the behavior that results from discrimination training.


Define discriminated response

A single instance of discriminated behavior


Define stimulus control

The increased probability of a discriminated behavior produced by an SD.
-effect of the stimulus involved in discrimination training.


What is stimulus equivalent?

When people respond as though one stimulus is equivalent to another stimulus (saying cat and pointing to the word cat when shown a picture)


What is complex discrimination training?

Involves two behaviors in two stimulus situations


What is generalization training?

-It eliminates boundaries between situations and the behavior spreads from one situation to another.
-Reinforcing a behavior in a series of situations until it generalizes to other members of that stimulus class.


What is generalization?

The occurrence of a behavior in the presence of a novel stimulus.


What is a stimulus class?

A set of related stimuli.


What is the train and hope method?

Method of generalization where you train and them hope it generalizes. Usually produces failure or limited success.


What is the similar-stimuli method?

This method ensures that stimuli similar to those present in the training situation are also present in the everyday situation
-trying to maximize the similarity between the training situation and the everyday situation


What is generalization of extinction?

Extinguishing the behavior in one or two settings produces extinction in other settings


What is concept formation?

Learning to discriminate whether a stimulus is within or outside of a stimulus class.


What generalizes, people or behavior?

Behavior generalizes, people don't generalize


What is generalization occurring among behaviors (rather than situations)?

Induction or response generalization


What is the difference between discrimination training and differential reinforcement?

-Discrimination training- 2+ stimuli, 1 behavior
-Differential reinforcement- 2+ behaviors, 1 stimulus


When so you use fading and programming?

When the discriminated behavior doesn't exist


Define prompt

An added stimulus that increases the probability that a person will make the correct response in the presence of a novel stimulus


What is fading?

The temporary use of a prompt that is gradually withdrawn to establish a specific discrimination
-a procedure


Define programming

The temporary use of prompts to establish a generalization.


Steps of programmed instruction:

Common form of programming.
1. Required a written response
2. Provides immediate feedback
3. Uses small steps


Difference between fading and shaping

-Fading is used to change the stimulus
-Shaping is used to change the behavior


Define imitation training

1. Teacher demonstrates the imitative stimulus
2. Learner emits imitative stimulus
3. Teacher reinforces it

Most acceptable treatment for persons with developmental disabilities

Specific type of Discrimination training


Modeling vs. imitation training

Modeling only shows what to go, imitation training has the learner do it too.


What is observational learning?

Modeling that was successful


Definition of instructional training

1. Teacher gives a verbal description
2. Learner emits the instructed behavior
3. Teacher reinforces it

Usually a discrimination training procedure

Reinforcement is crucial for maintaining instruction following
Used in almost all treatment programs

Simpler and more direct than reinforcement

Alternative to shaping


What is a primary reinforcer?

Reinforcers that never lose their power except through satiation.
Food, water, sex, warmth, etc - needs
Not based on learning
Food is the most common reinforcer used


What is a conditioned reinforcer?

Grow out of experience, different for everyone.
Effective only when paired with a primary reinforcer


What is a stimulus/response chain?

A sequence where each behavior becomes an SD for the next and the last behavior is reinforced.


What is aversive control strategy?

To decrease undesirable behavior through punishment


Tactics of the aversive control strategy

1. Decrease undesirable behavior through punishment as a last resort
2. Increase desirable behavior through negative reinforcement as a last resort


Define punishment

The procedure of following a behavior with a punisher


Define punisher

Any event that follows a behavior and decreases the rate of that behavior


What is punishment by contingent stimulation?

When you deliver an aversive event contingent on a behavior


What is punishment by contingent withdrawal?

Taking something away. Follows a behavior and decreases it.


What is negative reinforcement?

The procedure of following an event with a negative reinforcer


Define negative reinforcer

Any event that when terminated or prevented by a behavior, increases the rate of that behavior
-you take the event away rather than give it


Define escape vs avoidance

Escape-behavior that terminates a negative behavior

Avoidance-behavior that prevents a negative behavior


Should you label negative reinforce my as punishment for not making a response?



How do behavior analysts define behavior?

As doing something, never the absence of doing something