Chapters 1-7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1-7 Deck (54)
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Principle of public events

seeking the causes of behavior in public (environmental) events

1

Behavior analysis defenition

The science that studies environmental events that change behavior

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what is a Behavioral Strategy

way of defining human problems as behavioral problems

3

Steps in applying the behavioral strategy

Behavioral definition
Direct Observation
Reliability and Social Validity
Single-subject experiment
Visual analysis

4

ABA exploded in popularity in what year

1970

5

Definition of Behavior

anything a person does
behavior is physical and it functions to do something

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Behavioral Definition

a statement that specifies exactly what behavior to observe

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Benefits of a behavioral definition

Clearer communication with others
More consistent observations

8

Self-report observations

The observer relies on their memory of the behavior

9

Direct observation

The use of a trained observer who personally sees and immediately records their observations
exceptions: Observer can hear behavior or see results

10

How to increase direct observation accuracy when observing yourself

use a behavioral definition
someone else make an independent report

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How much of the body does behavior involve?

The whole body

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Behavior refers to activities that are...

obvious, subtle, internal or private

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Types of direct observations

Outcome recording
Event recording
Interval recording
Time-sample recording

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Outcome recording

record a response when you see the results of the behavior
Use when the behavior leaves a result

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Event recording

record a response when you see an instance of the behavior
Use if the behavior is uniform in length

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Interval recording

record a response if the behavior occurs in one of a series of continuous intervals
Use if behavior is non-uniform in length or occurs in nonuniform episodes

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Time-sample recording

record a response if the behavior occurs within one of a series of discontinuous intervals (can use to observe multiple people- check on one than the other)
Use to observe a sample of the behavior

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Most common method of direct observation

event recording

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Definition of Reliability

agreement between two independent observers

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Two conditions of reliability

use the same behavioral definition
observe the same responses

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Forms of reliability

Trial reliability
Frequency reliability

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Trial reliability

compares each observation of two independent observers
Only used for interval and time-sample recording

23

Formula for trial reliability

100%xA/(A+D)
A=agreements
D=Disagreements

24

Frequency reliability

compares the total count between two observers
Used for event and outcome recording

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Acceptable goal reliability

90% for old definitions
80% for new definitions

26

What is Social Validity

The correlation between ratings by outside judges and observations by trained observers
Validates the behavioral definition as well as the social appropriateness of intervention

27

What percentage of journal articles use reliability and what percent use social validity?

94% use reliability
29% use social validity

28

Assume the behavioral definition in a question is...

old - 90% needed

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Experimental design is used to...

rule out alternative explanations of the results

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What are the possible alternative explanations

Individual differences
Time coincidences

31

Treatment

Method introduced to modify the rate of a behavior

32

Baseline

The period of an experiment without the treatment

33

What are you doing when you rule out alternative explanations

Showing that events other than the treatment did not cause an observed difference

34

Principle of single-subject experiments

to expose the same person to the baseline and treatment
Can be more than one person but they all have to be subjected to both conditions
A group treated as a unit counts as a "person"

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List the types of single-subject experiments

Comparison Design
Reversal Design
Multiple-baseline Design

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Comparison Design

An experimental design comparing the baseline condition with the treatment condition
Cannot rule out time coincidences

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Reversal Design

Looks at behavior during baseline, treatment and reversal back to baseline

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Multiple-baseline Design

An experimental design that introduces treatment at different times for two or more behaviors people or situations

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What is a Backward Design?

When you start with the treatment condition first then move to baseline (and back to treatment if it's reversal)

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What is one-time treatment?

When you can't undo treatment condition. A skill can't be unlearned so treatment condition never ends

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How do you test the generality of an experiment?

Repeat the experiment many times with different people

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Multi-element Design

Involves alternating the experimental conditions many times, often every day

43

Group Designs

Provide statistical information, compares the treatment to standard treatments rather than finding out what causes the improvement

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What modifies or changes behavior?

Treatment

45

Principle of Visual Analysis

to decide whether differences between baseline and treatment look convincing

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Divided conditions

when the ranges on the last three points of two conditions are mutually exclusive

47

Stable condition

The last three numbers of one condition are not moving closer to the numbers in the other condition

48

Steps of visual analysis

Divided
Stable
Convincing
Treatment cause the difference? - not comparison

49

Convincing

Each part must be divided and stable. If one isn't then the answer is no

50

Why do we observe behaviors?

To help people change them

51

How is ABA "applied"?

Allowed methods of inquiry to be applied to human behavior

52

What do you do if the behavioral observations are not reliable?

Retrain the observers
Revise the behavioral definition to make it clearer

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What do you do if your beh def isn't socially valid?

Revise the behavioral def to match the meaning used by the judges